C贸digo fuente para qiskit.quantum_info.operators.channel.superop

# This code is part of Qiskit.
# (C) Copyright IBM 2017, 2019.
# This code is licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0. You may
# obtain a copy of this license in the LICENSE.txt file in the root directory
# of this source tree or at http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.
# Any modifications or derivative works of this code must retain this
# copyright notice, and modified files need to carry a notice indicating
# that they have been altered from the originals.

Superoperator representation of a Quantum Channel."""

from __future__ import annotations

import copy
from typing import TYPE_CHECKING

import numpy as np

from qiskit.circuit.instruction import Instruction
from qiskit.circuit.quantumcircuit import QuantumCircuit
from qiskit.exceptions import QiskitError
from qiskit.quantum_info.operators.base_operator import BaseOperator
from qiskit.quantum_info.operators.channel.quantum_channel import QuantumChannel
from qiskit.quantum_info.operators.channel.transformations import _bipartite_tensor, _to_superop
from qiskit.quantum_info.operators.mixins import generate_apidocs
from qiskit.quantum_info.operators.op_shape import OpShape
from qiskit.quantum_info.operators.operator import Operator

    from qiskit.quantum_info.states.densitymatrix import DensityMatrix
    from qiskit.quantum_info.states.statevector import Statevector

[documentos]class SuperOp(QuantumChannel): r"""Superoperator representation of a quantum channel. The Superoperator representation of a quantum channel :math:`\mathcal{E}` is a matrix :math:`S` such that the evolution of a :class:`~qiskit.quantum_info.DensityMatrix` :math:`\rho` is given by .. math:: |\mathcal{E}(\rho)\rangle\!\rangle = S |\rho\rangle\!\rangle where the double-ket notation :math:`|A\rangle\!\rangle` denotes a vector formed by stacking the columns of the matrix :math:`A` *(column-vectorization)*. See reference [1] for further details. References: 1. C.J. Wood, J.D. Biamonte, D.G. Cory, *Tensor networks and graphical calculus for open quantum systems*, Quant. Inf. Comp. 15, 0579-0811 (2015). `arXiv:1111.6950 [quant-ph] <https://arxiv.org/abs/1111.6950>`_ """ def __init__( self, data: QuantumCircuit | Instruction | BaseOperator | np.ndarray, input_dims: tuple | None = None, output_dims: tuple | None = None, ): """Initialize a quantum channel Superoperator operator. Args: data (QuantumCircuit or Instruction or BaseOperator or matrix): data to initialize superoperator. input_dims (tuple): the input subsystem dimensions. [Default: None] output_dims (tuple): the output subsystem dimensions. [Default: None] Raises: QiskitError: if input data cannot be initialized as a superoperator. Additional Information: If the input or output dimensions are None, they will be automatically determined from the input data. If the input data is a Numpy array of shape (4**N, 4**N) qubit systems will be used. If the input operator is not an N-qubit operator, it will assign a single subsystem with dimension specified by the shape of the input. """ # If the input is a raw list or matrix we assume that it is # already a superoperator. if isinstance(data, (list, np.ndarray)): # We initialize directly from superoperator matrix super_mat = np.asarray(data, dtype=complex) # Determine total input and output dimensions dout, din = super_mat.shape input_dim = int(np.sqrt(din)) output_dim = int(np.sqrt(dout)) if output_dim**2 != dout or input_dim**2 != din: raise QiskitError("Invalid shape for SuperOp matrix.") op_shape = OpShape.auto( dims_l=output_dims, dims_r=input_dims, shape=(output_dim, input_dim) ) else: # Otherwise we initialize by conversion from another Qiskit # object into the QuantumChannel. if isinstance(data, (QuantumCircuit, Instruction)): # If the input is a Terra QuantumCircuit or Instruction we # perform a simulation to construct the circuit superoperator. # This will only work if the circuit or instruction can be # defined in terms of instructions which have no classical # register components. The instructions can be gates, reset, # or Kraus instructions. Any conditional gates or measure # will cause an exception to be raised. data = self._init_instruction(data) else: # We use the QuantumChannel init transform to initialize # other objects into a QuantumChannel or Operator object. data = self._init_transformer(data) # Now that the input is an operator we convert it to a # SuperOp object op_shape = data._op_shape input_dim, output_dim = data.dim rep = getattr(data, "_channel_rep", "Operator") super_mat = _to_superop(rep, data._data, input_dim, output_dim) # Initialize QuantumChannel super().__init__(super_mat, op_shape=op_shape) def __array__(self, dtype=None): if dtype: return np.asarray(self.data, dtype=dtype) return self.data @property def _tensor_shape(self): """Return the tensor shape of the superoperator matrix""" return 2 * tuple(reversed(self._op_shape.dims_l())) + 2 * tuple( reversed(self._op_shape.dims_r()) ) @property def _bipartite_shape(self): """Return the shape for bipartite matrix""" return (self._output_dim, self._output_dim, self._input_dim, self._input_dim) # --------------------------------------------------------------------- # BaseOperator methods # ---------------------------------------------------------------------
[documentos] def conjugate(self): ret = copy.copy(self) ret._data = np.conj(self._data) return ret
[documentos] def transpose(self): ret = copy.copy(self) ret._data = np.transpose(self._data) ret._op_shape = self._op_shape.transpose() return ret
[documentos] def adjoint(self): ret = copy.copy(self) ret._data = np.conj(np.transpose(self._data)) ret._op_shape = self._op_shape.transpose() return ret
[documentos] def tensor(self, other: SuperOp) -> SuperOp: if not isinstance(other, SuperOp): other = SuperOp(other) return self._tensor(self, other)
[documentos] def expand(self, other: SuperOp) -> SuperOp: if not isinstance(other, SuperOp): other = SuperOp(other) return self._tensor(other, self)
@classmethod def _tensor(cls, a, b): ret = copy.copy(a) ret._op_shape = a._op_shape.tensor(b._op_shape) ret._data = _bipartite_tensor( a._data, b.data, shape1=a._bipartite_shape, shape2=b._bipartite_shape ) return ret
[documentos] def compose(self, other: SuperOp, qargs: list | None = None, front: bool = False) -> SuperOp: if qargs is None: qargs = getattr(other, "qargs", None) if not isinstance(other, SuperOp): other = SuperOp(other) # Validate dimensions are compatible and return the composed # operator dimensions new_shape = self._op_shape.compose(other._op_shape, qargs, front) input_dims = new_shape.dims_r() output_dims = new_shape.dims_l() # Full composition of superoperators if qargs is None: if front: data = np.dot(self._data, other.data) else: data = np.dot(other.data, self._data) ret = SuperOp(data, input_dims, output_dims) ret._op_shape = new_shape return ret # Compute tensor contraction indices from qargs num_qargs_l, num_qargs_r = self._op_shape.num_qargs if front: num_indices = num_qargs_r shift = 2 * num_qargs_l right_mul = True else: num_indices = num_qargs_l shift = 0 right_mul = False # Reshape current matrix # Note that we must reverse the subsystem dimension order as # qubit 0 corresponds to the right-most position in the tensor # product, which is the last tensor wire index. tensor = np.reshape(self.data, self._tensor_shape) mat = np.reshape(other.data, other._tensor_shape) # Add first set of indices indices = [2 * num_indices - 1 - qubit for qubit in qargs] + [ num_indices - 1 - qubit for qubit in qargs ] final_shape = [np.prod(output_dims) ** 2, np.prod(input_dims) ** 2] data = np.reshape( Operator._einsum_matmul(tensor, mat, indices, shift, right_mul), final_shape ) ret = SuperOp(data, input_dims, output_dims) ret._op_shape = new_shape return ret
# --------------------------------------------------------------------- # Additional methods # --------------------------------------------------------------------- def _evolve(self, state, qargs=None): """Evolve a quantum state by the quantum channel. Args: state (DensityMatrix or Statevector): The input state. qargs (list): a list of quantum state subsystem positions to apply the quantum channel on. Returns: DensityMatrix: the output quantum state as a density matrix. Raises: QiskitError: if the quantum channel dimension does not match the specified quantum state subsystem dimensions. """ # Prevent cyclic imports by importing DensityMatrix here # pylint: disable=cyclic-import from qiskit.quantum_info.states.densitymatrix import DensityMatrix if not isinstance(state, DensityMatrix): state = DensityMatrix(state) if qargs is None: # Evolution on full matrix if state._op_shape.shape[0] != self._op_shape.shape[1]: raise QiskitError( "Operator input dimension is not equal to density matrix dimension." ) # We reshape in column-major vectorization (Fortran order in Numpy) # since that is how the SuperOp is defined vec = np.ravel(state.data, order="F") mat = np.reshape( np.dot(self.data, vec), (self._output_dim, self._output_dim), order="F" ) return DensityMatrix(mat, dims=self.output_dims()) # Otherwise we are applying an operator only to subsystems # Check dimensions of subsystems match the operator if state.dims(qargs) != self.input_dims(): raise QiskitError( "Operator input dimensions are not equal to statevector subsystem dimensions." ) # Reshape statevector and operator tensor = np.reshape(state.data, state._op_shape.tensor_shape) mat = np.reshape(self.data, self._tensor_shape) # Construct list of tensor indices of statevector to be contracted num_indices = len(state.dims()) indices = [num_indices - 1 - qubit for qubit in qargs] + [ 2 * num_indices - 1 - qubit for qubit in qargs ] tensor = Operator._einsum_matmul(tensor, mat, indices) # Replace evolved dimensions new_dims = list(state.dims()) output_dims = self.output_dims() for i, qubit in enumerate(qargs): new_dims[qubit] = output_dims[i] new_dim = np.prod(new_dims) # reshape tensor to density matrix tensor = np.reshape(tensor, (new_dim, new_dim)) return DensityMatrix(tensor, dims=new_dims) @classmethod def _init_instruction(cls, instruction): """Convert a QuantumCircuit or Instruction to a SuperOp.""" # Convert circuit to an instruction if isinstance(instruction, QuantumCircuit): instruction = instruction.to_instruction() # Initialize an identity superoperator of the correct size # of the circuit op = SuperOp(np.eye(4**instruction.num_qubits)) op._append_instruction(instruction) return op @classmethod def _instruction_to_superop(cls, obj): """Return superop for instruction if defined or None otherwise.""" if not isinstance(obj, Instruction): raise QiskitError("Input is not an instruction.") chan = None if obj.name == "reset": # For superoperator evolution we can simulate a reset as # a non-unitary superoperator matrix chan = SuperOp(np.array([[1, 0, 0, 1], [0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0], [0, 0, 0, 0]])) if obj.name == "kraus": kraus = obj.params dim = len(kraus[0]) chan = SuperOp(_to_superop("Kraus", (kraus, None), dim, dim)) elif hasattr(obj, "to_matrix"): # If instruction is a gate first we see if it has a # `to_matrix` definition and if so use that. try: kraus = [obj.to_matrix()] dim = len(kraus[0]) chan = SuperOp(_to_superop("Kraus", (kraus, None), dim, dim)) except QiskitError: pass return chan def _append_instruction(self, obj, qargs=None): """Update the current Operator by apply an instruction.""" from qiskit.circuit.barrier import Barrier chan = self._instruction_to_superop(obj) if chan is not None: # Perform the composition and inplace update the current state # of the operator op = self.compose(chan, qargs=qargs) self._data = op.data elif isinstance(obj, Barrier): return else: # If the instruction doesn't have a matrix defined we use its # circuit decomposition definition if it exists, otherwise we # cannot compose this gate and raise an error. if obj.definition is None: raise QiskitError(f"Cannot apply Instruction: {obj.name}") if not isinstance(obj.definition, QuantumCircuit): raise QiskitError( "{} instruction definition is {}; " "expected QuantumCircuit".format(obj.name, type(obj.definition)) ) qubit_indices = {bit: idx for idx, bit in enumerate(obj.definition.qubits)} for instruction in obj.definition.data: if instruction.clbits: raise QiskitError( "Cannot apply instruction with classical bits:" f" {instruction.operation.name}" ) # Get the integer position of the flat register if qargs is None: new_qargs = [qubit_indices[tup] for tup in instruction.qubits] else: new_qargs = [qargs[qubit_indices[tup]] for tup in instruction.qubits] self._append_instruction(instruction.operation, qargs=new_qargs)
# Update docstrings for API docs generate_apidocs(SuperOp)