Prerequisites:

Other relevant materials:

```
from qiskit import *
import numpy as np
from qiskit.visualization import plot_histogram
import qiskit.tools.jupyter
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
```

```
sim = Aer.get_backend('aer_simulator')
shots = 20000
```

## Part 1: Quantum circuit for Shor's algorithm

**Goal**

Construct a compiled version of quantum circuit for Shor's algorithm.

Shor's algorithm consists of the following steps; choose a co-prime $a$, where $a \in [2, N-1]$ and the greatest common divisor of $a$ and $N$ is 1, find the order of $a$ modulo $N$, the smallest integer $r$ such that $a^{r}modN = 1$, and then obtain the factor of $N$ by computing the greatest common divisor of $a^{r/2} \pm 1$ and $N$. In this procedure, the second step, finding the order of $a$ modulo $N$, is the only quantum part, *quantum order-finding*.

In Ch.3.9 Shor's Algorithm, we built a quantum circuit to find the order for $a=7$ and $N=15$. However, as we are very well aware by now, such a large depth circuit is not practical to run on near-term quantum systems due to the presence of noise. Here in part 1 of this lab, we construct a practical quantum circuit for the same example, which could generate a meaningful solution when executed on today's quantum computers.

In general, the quantum order-finding circuit to factorize the number $N$ requires $m = [log_{2}(N)]$ qubits in the computational (auxiliary) register and $2m (=t)$qubit in the period ( counting ) registers .i.e. total $3m$ qubits, at minimum. Therefore, 12 qubits were used in the quantum circuit to factorize the number 15 in Ch.3.9 Shor's Algorithm. In addition, the controlled unitary operator for the modular function, $f(x) = a^xmodN$ was applied in a cascading manner as shown in the figure below to produce the highly entangled state $\Sigma^{2^m-1}_{x=0}|x\rangle|a^xmodN>$, which increases the circuit depth substantially. However the size of the circuit can be reduced based on several observations.

### 1. Remove redundancy.

#### Step A. Run the following cell to create the gate `U`

for the function `7mod15`

.

The unitary operator $U$ is defined as $U|x\rangle \equiv |7x(mod15)\rangle$.

```
## Create 7mod15 gate
N = 15
m = int(np.ceil(np.log2(N)))
U_qc = QuantumCircuit(m)
U_qc.x(range(m))
U_qc.swap(1, 2)
U_qc.swap(2, 3)
U_qc.swap(0, 3)
U = U_qc.to_gate()
U.name ='{}Mod{}'.format(7, N)
```

📓 Confirm if the unitary operator $U$ works properly by creating a quantum circuit with $m$ qubits. Prepare the input state representing any integer between 0 and 15 (exclusive) such as $|1\rangle (=|0001\rangle), |5\rangle (=|0101\rangle), |13\rangle (=|1101\rangle)$ etc., and apply $U$ gate on it. Check if the circuit produces the expected outcomes for several inputs. The outcome state for the input $|1\rangle$ should be $|7\rangle (=|0111>$) and $|1\rangle$ for the input $|13\rangle$, for example.

```
### your code goes here
```

#### 📓Step B. Create a quantum circuit with $m$ qubits implementing $U$ gate $4(=2^{2})$ times and run it on the `aer_simulator`

to obtain the matrix resprentation of the gates in the circuit. Verify $U^{2^{2}} = I $

As shown in the above figure, modular exponentiation is realized by implementing the controlled unitary operator $U$ on each qubit $2^{n}$ times in series when $n$ goes from 0 to 7 for our example. However, we will find out that whole sets of operations are redundant when $n > 1$ for `7mod15`

case, hence the redundant operation can be removed from the circuit.

```
### your code goes here
```

#### Step C. Run the cells below to see the reduced circuit, `shor_QPE`

, and execute it on the `aer_simulator`

to check if it reproduce the estimated phases in the Qiskit textbook Ch.3.9.

```
def cU_multi(k):
circ = QuantumCircuit(m)
for _ in range(2**k):
circ.append(U, range(m))
U_multi = circ.to_gate()
U_multi.name = '7Mod15_[2^{}]'.format(k)
cU_multi = U_multi.control()
return cU_multi
```

```
def qft(n):
"""Creates an n-qubit QFT circuit"""
circuit = QuantumCircuit(n)
def swap_registers(circuit, n):
for qubit in range(n//2):
circuit.swap(qubit, n-qubit-1)
return circuit
def qft_rotations(circuit, n):
"""Performs qft on the first n qubits in circuit (without swaps)"""
if n == 0:
return circuit
n -= 1
circuit.h(n)
for qubit in range(n):
circuit.cp(np.pi/2**(n-qubit), qubit, n)
qft_rotations(circuit, n)
qft_rotations(circuit, n)
swap_registers(circuit, n)
return circuit
```

```
# QPE circuit for Shor
t = 3
shor_QPE = QuantumCircuit(t+m, t)
shor_QPE.h(range(t))
shor_QPE.x(t)
for idx in range(t-1):
shor_QPE.append(cU_multi(idx), [idx]+ list(range(t,t+m)))
qft_dag = qft(t).inverse()
qft_dag.name = 'QFT+'
shor_QPE.append(qft_dag, range(t))
shor_QPE.measure(range(t), range(t))
shor_QPE.draw()
```

```
count_QPE = execute(shor_QPE, sim, shots=shots).result().get_counts()
key_new = [str(int(key,2)/2**3) for key in count_QPE.keys()]
count_new_QPE = dict(zip(key_new, count_QPE.values()))
plot_histogram(count_new_QPE)
```

### 2. Implement Iterative Phase Estimation (IPE) algorithm.

The circuit above, `shor_QPE`

can be optimized further by implementing IPE algorithm as we learned in the previous lab, `Lab4 Iterative Phase Estimation Algorithm`

.

#### 📓 Create the circuit `shor_IPE`

by modifying the above circuit (`shor_QPE`

) with a single period (counting) qubit register and check its result through `aer_simulator`

.

```
### your code goes here
```

## Part 2: Noise simulation of the quantum order-finding circuits.

**Goal**

Perform the noise simulation of all three quantum order-finding circuits: the one in Qiskit textbook, compiled version of QPE circuit in the first section of Part1 , compiled version of IPE circuit in Part 1. Compare their results.

In part 1, we constructed the compiled version of the circuit for Shor's algorithm; removed the redundant gates and optimized it further by implementing IPE algorithm that we learned in the previous lab, Lab4. In part 2, we inspect how each optimization plays a role to improved the outcomes by comparing their noise simulation results.

Run the following cells to construct the Shor's circuit in Qiskit textbook Ch.3.9 Shor's Algorithm, 'shor_Orig',and to obtain its simulation result.

```
t = 2*m
shor_Orig = QuantumCircuit(t+m, t)
shor_Orig.h(range(t))
shor_Orig.x(t)
for idx in range(t):
shor_Orig.append(cU_multi(idx), [idx]+ list(range(t,t+m)))
qft_dag = qft(t).inverse()
qft_dag.name = 'QFT+'
shor_Orig.append(qft_dag, range(t))
shor_Orig.measure(range(t), range(t))
shor_Orig.draw()
```

```
count_Orig = execute(shor_Orig, sim, shots=shots).result().get_counts()
key_new = [str(int(key,2)/2**t) for key in count_Orig.keys()]
count_new_Orig = dict(zip(key_new, count_Orig.values()))
plot_histogram(count_new_Orig, title='textbook circuit simulation result No noise')
```

#### Perform the noise simulations of all three circuits, `shor_Orig`

, `shor_QPE`

, `shor_IPE`

on the backend `FakeMelbourne`

and plot their noise simulation results together with ones without noise for comparison.

Run the following cell.

```
from qiskit.test.mock import FakeMelbourne
backend = FakeMelbourne()
shots=8192
```

The comparison plot of the simulation results with/without noise for the textbook circuit `shor_Orig`

is given below. The code is there to show how the result is generated but not recommended to run as it takes for long time.

```
# shorOrig_trans = transpile(shor_Orig, backend, optimization_level=3)
# count_shorOrig_noise = execute(shor_Orig, backend, shots=shots).result().get_counts()
```

```
# key_new = [str(np.round(int(key,2)/2**t,3)) for key in count_shorOrig_noise.keys()]
# count_new_Orig_noise = dict(zip(key_new, count_shorOrig_noise.values()))
```

```
# fig, ax = plt.subplots(2,1, figsize=(30,13))
# fig.suptitle('Simulation results for the order finding circuit of $7^{r} mod 15 = 1$', fontsize=23)
# plot_histogram(count_new_Orig, ax=ax[0])
# plot_histogram(count_new_Orig_noise, ax=ax[1])
# ax[0].set_title('sim No noise', fontsize=16)
# ax[1].set_title('sim on Melbourne', fontsize=16)
# plt.show()
```

📓 Carry out the same task for the circuits, `shor_QPE`

and `shor_IPE`

.

```
### your code goes here
```