class PulseSimulator(configuration=None, properties=None, defaults=None, provider=None, **backend_options)[source]

Deprecated: Pulse schedule simulator backend.


This simulator is deprecated having been superseded by the Qiskit Dynamics library. If you need to perform pulse level simulation you should use the Qiskit Dynamics library instead.

The PulseSimulator simulates continuous time Hamiltonian dynamics of a quantum system, with controls specified by pulse Schedule objects, and the model of the physical system specified by PulseSystemModel objects. Results are returned in the same format as when jobs are submitted to actual devices.


The minimal information a PulseSimulator needs to simulate is a PulseSystemModel, which can be supplied either by setting the backend option before calling run, e.g.:

backend_sim = qiskit_aer.PulseSimulator()

# Set the pulse system model for the simulator

# Assemble schedules using PulseSimulator as the backend
pulse_qobj = assemble(schedules, backend=backend_sim)

# Run simulation
results = backend_sim.run(pulse_qobj)

or by supplying the system model at runtime, e.g.:

backend_sim = qiskit_aer.PulseSimulator()

# Assemble schedules using PulseSimulator as the backend
pulse_qobj = assemble(schedules, backend=backend_sim)

# Run simulation on a PulseSystemModel object
results = backend_sim.run(pulse_qobj, system_model=system_model)

Alternatively, an instance of the PulseSimulator may be further configured to contain more information present in a real backend. The simplest way to do this is to instantiate the PulseSimulator from a real backend:

armonk_sim = qiskit_aer.PulseSimulator.from_backend(FakeArmonk())
pulse_qobj = assemble(schedules, backend=armonk_sim)

In the above example, the PulseSimulator copies all configuration and default data from FakeArmonk(), and as such has the same affect as FakeArmonk() when passed as an argument to assemble. Furthermore it constructs a PulseSystemModel from the model details in the supplied backend, which is then used in simulation.

Supported PulseQobj parameters

  • qubit_lo_freq: Local oscillator frequencies for each DriveChannel. Defaults to either the value given in the PulseSystemModel, or is calculated directly from the Hamiltonian.

  • meas_level: Type of desired measurement output, in [1, 2]. 1 gives complex numbers (IQ values), and 2 gives discriminated states |0> and |1>. Defaults to 2.

  • meas_return: Measurement type, 'single' or 'avg'. Defaults to 'avg'.

  • shots: Number of shots per experiment. Defaults to 1024.

  • executor: Set a custom executor for asynchronous running of simulation

  • max_job_size (int or None): If the number of run schedules exceeds this value simulation will be run as a set of of sub-jobs on the executor. If None simulation of all schedules are submitted to the executor as a single job (Default: None).

  • max_shot_size (int or None): If the number of shots of a noisy circuit exceeds this value simulation will be split into multi circuits for execution and the results accumulated. If None circuits will not be split based on shots. When splitting circuits use the max_job_size option to control how these split circuits should be submitted to the executor (Default: None).

    jobs (Default: None).

Simulation details

The simulator uses the zvode differential equation solver method through scipy. Simulation is performed in the rotating frame of the diagonal of the drift Hamiltonian contained in the PulseSystemModel. Measurements are performed in the dressed basis of the drift Hamiltonian.

Other options

Additional valid keyword arguments for run():

  • 'solver_options': A dict for solver options. Accepted keys are 'atol', 'rtol', 'nsteps', 'max_step', 'num_cpus', 'norm_tol', and 'norm_steps'.

Aer class for backends.

This method should initialize the module and its configuration, and raise an exception if a component of the module is not available.

  • configuration (BackendConfiguration) – backend configuration.

  • properties (BackendProperties or None) – Optional, backend properties.

  • defaults (PulseDefaults or None) – Optional, backend pulse defaults.

  • provider (Provider) – Optional, provider responsible for this backend.

  • backend_options (dict or None) – Optional set custom backend options.


AerError – if there is no name in the configuration



Return the options for the backend




Reset the simulator options to default values.


Return the simulator backend configuration.


Return the simulator backend pulse defaults.

PulseSimulator.from_backend(backend, **options)

Initialize simulator from backend.


Return the backend name.


Return the simulator backend properties if set.


Return the backend Provider.

PulseSimulator.run(schedules[, validate])

Run a qobj on the backend.

PulseSimulator.set_option(key, value)

Set pulse simulation options and update backend.


Set the simulator options


Return backend status.