Source code for qiskit_aer.noise.errors.quantum_error

# This code is part of Qiskit.
# (C) Copyright IBM 2018-2023.
# This code is licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0. You may
# obtain a copy of this license in the LICENSE.txt file in the root directory
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Quantum error class for Qiskit Aer noise model
import copy
import numbers
import uuid
from typing import Iterable

import numpy as np

from qiskit.circuit import QuantumCircuit, Instruction, QuantumRegister
from qiskit.circuit.exceptions import CircuitError
from qiskit.circuit.library.generalized_gates import PauliGate
from qiskit.circuit.library.standard_gates import IGate
from qiskit.exceptions import QiskitError
from qiskit.quantum_info.operators.base_operator import BaseOperator
from import Kraus, SuperOp
from import QuantumChannel
from qiskit.quantum_info.operators.mixins import TolerancesMixin
from qiskit.quantum_info.operators.predicates import is_identity_matrix
from qiskit.quantum_info.operators.symplectic import Clifford
from ..noiseerror import NoiseError

[docs]class QuantumError(BaseOperator, TolerancesMixin): """ Quantum error class for Qiskit Aer noise model .. warning:: The init interface for this class is not finalized and may change in future releases. For maximum backwards compatibility use the QuantumError generating functions in the `noise.errors` module. """ def __init__(self, noise_ops): """ Create a quantum error for a noise model. Noise ops may either be specified as a :obj:`` for a general CPTP map, or as a list of ``(circuit, p)`` pairs where ``circuit`` is a circuit-like object for the noise, and ``p`` is the probability of the noise event. Any type of input will be converted to the probabilistic mixture of circuit format. **Example** An example noise_ops for a bit-flip error with error probability ``p = 0.1`` is: .. code-block:: python noise_ops = [(IGate(), 0.9), (XGate(), 0.1)] or specifying explicit qubit arguments, .. code-block:: python noise_ops = [((IGate(), [0]), 0.9), ((XGate(), [0]), 0.1)] The same error represented as a Kraus channel can be input as: .. code-block:: python noise_ops = Kraus([np.sqrt(0.9) * np.array([[1, 0], [0, 1]]), np.sqrt(0.1) * np.array([[0, 1], [1, 0]])]) Args: noise_ops (QuantumChannel or Iterable): Either a quantum channel or a list of ``(circuit, p)`` pairs, which represents a quantum error, where ``circuit`` is a circuit-like object for the noise, and ``p`` is the probability of the noise event. Circuit-like types include ``QuantumCircuit``, ``(Instruction, qargs)`` and a list of ``(Instruction, qargs)``. Note that ``qargs`` should be a list of integers and can be omitted (default qubits are used in that case). See also examples above. Raises: NoiseError: If input noise_ops is invalid, e.g. it's not a CPTP map. """ # Unique ID for QuantumError self._id = uuid.uuid4().hex # Shallow copy constructor if isinstance(noise_ops, QuantumError): self._circs = noise_ops.circuits self._probs = noise_ops.probabilities super().__init__(num_qubits=noise_ops.num_qubits) return # Single circuit case if not isinstance(noise_ops, Iterable) or ( isinstance(noise_ops, tuple) and isinstance(noise_ops[0], Instruction) ): noise_ops = [(noise_ops, 1.0)] # Convert zipped object to list (to enable multiple iteration over it) if not isinstance(noise_ops, list): noise_ops = list(noise_ops) # Input checks for pair in noise_ops: if not isinstance(pair, tuple) or len(pair) != 2: raise NoiseError(f"Invalid type of input is found around '{pair}'") _, p = pair # pylint: disable=invalid-name if not isinstance(p, numbers.Real): raise NoiseError(f"Invalid type of probability: {p}") if p < -1 * QuantumError.atol: raise NoiseError(f"Negative probability is invalid: {p}") # Remove zero probability circuits noise_ops = [(op, prob) for op, prob in noise_ops if prob > 0] if len(noise_ops) == 0: raise NoiseError( "noise_ops must contain at least one operator with non-zero probability" ) ops, probs = zip(*noise_ops) # unzip # Initialize internal variables with error checking total_probs = sum(probs) if not np.isclose(total_probs - 1, 0, atol=QuantumError.atol): raise NoiseError(f"Probabilities are not normalized: {total_probs} != 1") # Rescale probabilities if their sum is ok to avoid accumulation of rounding errors self._probs = list(np.array(probs) / total_probs) # Convert instructions to circuits circs = [self._to_circuit(op) for op in ops] num_qubits = max(qc.num_qubits for qc in circs) self._circs = [self._enlarge_qreg(qc, num_qubits) for qc in circs] # Check validity of circuits for circ in self._circs: if circ.clbits: raise NoiseError("Circuit with classical register cannot be a channel") if circ.num_qubits != num_qubits: raise NoiseError("Number of qubits used in noise ops must be the same") super().__init__(num_qubits=num_qubits) # pylint: disable=too-many-return-statements @classmethod def _to_circuit(cls, op): if isinstance(op, QuantumCircuit): return op if isinstance(op, tuple): inst, qubits = op circ = QuantumCircuit(max(qubits) + 1) circ.append(inst, qargs=qubits) return circ if isinstance(op, Instruction): if op.num_clbits > 0: raise NoiseError( f"Unable to convert instruction with clbits: {op.__class__.__name__}" ) circ = QuantumCircuit(op.num_qubits) circ.append(op, qargs=list(range(op.num_qubits))) return circ if isinstance(op, QuantumChannel): if not op.is_cptp(atol=cls.atol): raise NoiseError("Input quantum channel is not CPTP.") try: return cls._to_circuit(Kraus(op).to_instruction()) except QiskitError as err: raise NoiseError( f"Fail to convert {op.__class__.__name__} to Instruction." ) from err if isinstance(op, BaseOperator): if hasattr(op, "to_instruction"): try: return cls._to_circuit(op.to_instruction()) except QiskitError as err: raise NoiseError( f"Fail to convert {op.__class__.__name__} to Instruction." ) from err else: raise NoiseError( f"Unacceptable Operator, not implementing to_instruction: " f"{op.__class__.__name__}" ) if isinstance(op, list): if all(isinstance(aop, tuple) for aop in op): num_qubits = max([max(qubits) for _, qubits in op]) + 1 circ = QuantumCircuit(num_qubits) for inst, qubits in op: try: circ.append(inst, qargs=qubits) except CircuitError as err: raise NoiseError( f"Invalid operation type: {inst.__class__.__name__}," f" not appendable to circuit." ) from err return circ else: raise NoiseError(f"Invalid type of op list: {op}") raise NoiseError(f"Invalid noise op type {op.__class__.__name__}: {op}") def __repr__(self): """Display QuantumError.""" return f"QuantumError({list(zip(self.circuits, self.probabilities))})" def __str__(self): """Print error information.""" output = f"QuantumError on {self.num_qubits} qubits. Noise circuits:" for j, pair in enumerate(zip(self.probabilities, self.circuits)): output += f"\n P({j}) = {pair[0]}, Circuit = \n{pair[1]}" return output def __eq__(self, other): """Test if two QuantumErrors are equal as SuperOps""" if not isinstance(other, QuantumError): return False return self.to_quantumchannel() == other.to_quantumchannel() def __hash__(self): return hash(self._id) @property def id(self): # pylint: disable=invalid-name """Return unique ID string for error""" return self._id
[docs] def copy(self): """Make a copy of current QuantumError.""" # pylint: disable=no-value-for-parameter # The constructor of subclasses from raw data should be a copy return copy.deepcopy(self)
@property def size(self): """Return the number of error circuit.""" return len(self.circuits) @property def circuits(self): """Return the list of error circuits.""" return self._circs @property def probabilities(self): """Return the list of error probabilities.""" return self._probs
[docs] def ideal(self): """Return True if this error object is composed only of identity operations. Note that the identity check is best effort and up to global phase.""" for circ in self.circuits: try: # Circuit-level identity check for clifford Circuits clifford = Clifford(circ) if clifford != Clifford(np.eye(2 * circ.num_qubits, dtype=bool)): return False except QiskitError: pass # Component-wise check for non-Clifford circuits for op, _, _ in circ: if isinstance(op, IGate): continue if isinstance(op, PauliGate): if op.params[0].replace("I", ""): return False else: # Convert to Kraus and check if identity kmats = Kraus(op).data if len(kmats) > 1: return False if not is_identity_matrix( kmats[0], ignore_phase=True, atol=self.atol, rtol=self.rtol ): return False return True
[docs] def to_quantumchannel(self): """Convert the QuantumError to a SuperOp quantum channel. Required to enable SuperOp(QuantumError).""" # Initialize as an empty superoperator of the correct size dim = 2**self.num_qubits ret = SuperOp(np.zeros([dim * dim, dim * dim])) for circ, prob in zip(self.circuits, self.probabilities): component = prob * SuperOp(circ) ret = ret + component return ret
[docs] def to_instruction(self): """Convert the QuantumError to a circuit Instruction.""" return QuantumChannelInstruction(self)
[docs] def error_term(self, position): """ Return a single term from the error. Args: position (int): the position of the error term. Returns: tuple: A pair `(circuit, p)` for error term at `position` < size where `p` is the probability of the error term, and `circuit` is the list of qobj instructions for the error term. Raises: NoiseError: If the position is greater than the size of the quantum error. """ if position < self.size: return self.circuits[position], self.probabilities[position] else: raise NoiseError( f"Position {position} is greater than the number of error outcomes {self.size}" )
[docs] def to_dict(self): """Return the current error as a dictionary.""" # Assemble noise circuits instructions = [] for circ in self._circs: circ_inst = [] for inst, qargs, _ in qobj_inst = inst.assemble() qobj_inst.qubits = [circ.find_bit(q).index for q in qargs] circ_inst.append(qobj_inst.to_dict()) instructions.append(circ_inst) # Construct error dict error = { "type": "qerror", "id":, "operations": [], "instructions": instructions, "probabilities": list(self.probabilities), } return error
[docs] def compose(self, other, qargs=None, front=False): if not isinstance(other, QuantumError): other = QuantumError(other) if qargs is not None: if self.num_qubits < other.num_qubits: raise QiskitError( "Number of qubits of this error must be less than" " that of the error to be composed if using 'qargs' argument." ) if len(qargs) != other.num_qubits: raise QiskitError( "Number of items in 'qargs' argument must be the same as" " number of qubits of the error to be composed." ) if front: raise QiskitError( "QuantumError.compose does not support 'qargs' when 'front=True'." ) circs = [ self._compose_circ(lqc, rqc, qubits=qargs, front=front) for lqc in self.circuits for rqc in other.circuits ] probs = [lpr * rpr for lpr in self.probabilities for rpr in other.probabilities] return QuantumError(zip(circs, probs))
@staticmethod def _enlarge_qreg(qc: QuantumCircuit, num_qubits: int): if qc.num_qubits < num_qubits: enlarged = QuantumCircuit(num_qubits) return enlarged.compose(qc) return qc @staticmethod def _compose_circ(lqc: QuantumCircuit, rqc: QuantumCircuit, qubits, front): if qubits is None: if front: lqc, rqc = rqc, lqc if lqc.num_qubits < rqc.num_qubits: lqc = QuantumError._enlarge_qreg(lqc, rqc.num_qubits) return lqc.compose(rqc) return lqc.compose(rqc, qubits=qubits, front=front)
[docs] def tensor(self, other): if not isinstance(other, QuantumError): other = QuantumError(other) circs = [lqc.tensor(rqc) for lqc in self.circuits for rqc in other.circuits] probs = [lpr * rpr for lpr in self.probabilities for rpr in other.probabilities] return QuantumError(zip(circs, probs))
[docs] def expand(self, other): return other.tensor(self)
# Overloads def __rmul__(self, other): raise NotImplementedError("'QuantumError' does not support scalar multiplication.") def __truediv__(self, other): raise NotImplementedError("'QuantumError' does not support division.") def __add__(self, other): raise NotImplementedError("'QuantumError' does not support addition.") def __sub__(self, other): raise NotImplementedError("'QuantumError' does not support subtraction.") def __neg__(self): raise NotImplementedError("'QuantumError' does not support negation.")
class QuantumChannelInstruction(Instruction): """Container instruction for adding QuantumError to circuit""" def __init__(self, quantum_error): """Initialize a quantum error circuit instruction. Args: quantum_error (QuantumError): the error to add as an instruction. """ super().__init__("quantum_channel", quantum_error.num_qubits, 0, []) self._quantum_error = quantum_error def _define(self): """Allow unrolling to a Kraus instruction""" q = QuantumRegister(self.num_qubits, "q") qc = QuantumCircuit(q, qc._append(Kraus(self._quantum_error).to_instruction(), q, []) self.definition = qc