# Código fonte de qiskit.synthesis.linear.cnot_synth

```
# This code is part of Qiskit.
#
# (C) Copyright IBM 2017, 2019.
#
# This code is licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0. You may
# obtain a copy of this license in the LICENSE.txt file in the root directory
# of this source tree or at http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.
#
# Any modifications or derivative works of this code must retain this
# copyright notice, and modified files need to carry a notice indicating
# that they have been altered from the originals.
"""
Implementation of the GraySynth algorithm for synthesizing CNOT-Phase
circuits with efficient CNOT cost, and the Patel-Hayes-Markov algorithm
for optimal synthesis of linear (CNOT-only) reversible circuits.
"""
import copy
import numpy as np
from qiskit.circuit import QuantumCircuit
from qiskit.exceptions import QiskitError
[documentos]def synth_cnot_count_full_pmh(state, section_size=2):
"""
Synthesize linear reversible circuits for all-to-all architecture
using Patel, Markov and Hayes method.
This function is an implementation of the Patel, Markov and Hayes algorithm from [1]
for optimal synthesis of linear reversible circuits for all-to-all architecture,
as specified by an n x n matrix.
Args:
state (list[list] or ndarray): n x n boolean invertible matrix, describing the state
of the input circuit
section_size (int): the size of each section, used in the
Patel–Markov–Hayes algorithm [1]. section_size must be a factor of num_qubits.
Returns:
QuantumCircuit: a CX-only circuit implementing the linear transformation.
Raises:
QiskitError: when variable "state" isn't of type numpy.ndarray
References:
1. Patel, Ketan N., Igor L. Markov, and John P. Hayes,
*Optimal synthesis of linear reversible circuits*,
Quantum Information & Computation 8.3 (2008): 282-294.
`arXiv:quant-ph/0302002 [quant-ph] <https://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0302002>`_
"""
if not isinstance(state, (list, np.ndarray)):
raise QiskitError(
"state should be of type list or numpy.ndarray, "
"but was of the type {}".format(type(state))
)
state = np.array(state)
# Synthesize lower triangular part
[state, circuit_l] = _lwr_cnot_synth(state, section_size)
state = np.transpose(state)
# Synthesize upper triangular part
[state, circuit_u] = _lwr_cnot_synth(state, section_size)
circuit_l.reverse()
for i in circuit_u:
i.reverse()
# Convert the list into a circuit of C-NOT gates
circ = QuantumCircuit(state.shape[0])
for i in circuit_u + circuit_l:
circ.cx(i[0], i[1])
return circ
def _lwr_cnot_synth(state, section_size):
"""
This function is a helper function of the algorithm for optimal synthesis
of linear reversible circuits (the Patel–Markov–Hayes algorithm). It works
like gaussian elimination, except that it works a lot faster, and requires
fewer steps (and therefore fewer CNOTs). It takes the matrix "state" and
splits it into sections of size section_size. Then it eliminates all non-zero
sub-rows within each section, which are the same as a non-zero sub-row
above. Once this has been done, it continues with normal gaussian elimination.
The benefit is that with small section sizes (m), most of the sub-rows will
be cleared in the first step, resulting in a factor m fewer row row operations
during Gaussian elimination.
The algorithm is described in detail in the following paper
"Optimal synthesis of linear reversible circuits."
Patel, Ketan N., Igor L. Markov, and John P. Hayes.
Quantum Information & Computation 8.3 (2008): 282-294.
Note:
This implementation tweaks the Patel, Markov, and Hayes algorithm by adding
a "back reduce" which adds rows below the pivot row with a high degree of
overlap back to it. The intuition is to avoid a high-weight pivot row
increasing the weight of lower rows.
Args:
state (ndarray): n x n matrix, describing a linear quantum circuit
section_size (int): the section size the matrix columns are divided into
Returns:
numpy.matrix: n by n matrix, describing the state of the output circuit
list: a k by 2 list of C-NOT operations that need to be applied
"""
circuit = []
num_qubits = state.shape[0]
cutoff = 1
# Iterate over column sections
for sec in range(1, int(np.floor(num_qubits / section_size) + 1)):
# Remove duplicate sub-rows in section sec
patt = {}
for row in range((sec - 1) * section_size, num_qubits):
sub_row_patt = copy.deepcopy(state[row, (sec - 1) * section_size : sec * section_size])
if np.sum(sub_row_patt) == 0:
continue
if str(sub_row_patt) not in patt:
patt[str(sub_row_patt)] = row
else:
state[row, :] ^= state[patt[str(sub_row_patt)], :]
circuit.append([patt[str(sub_row_patt)], row])
# Use gaussian elimination for remaining entries in column section
for col in range((sec - 1) * section_size, sec * section_size):
# Check if 1 on diagonal
diag_one = 1
if state[col, col] == 0:
diag_one = 0
# Remove ones in rows below column col
for row in range(col + 1, num_qubits):
if state[row, col] == 1:
if diag_one == 0:
state[col, :] ^= state[row, :]
circuit.append([row, col])
diag_one = 1
state[row, :] ^= state[col, :]
circuit.append([col, row])
# Back reduce the pivot row using the current row
if sum(state[col, :] & state[row, :]) > cutoff:
state[col, :] ^= state[row, :]
circuit.append([row, col])
return [state, circuit]
```