Portuguese
Idiomas
English
Bengali
French
German
Japanese
Korean
Portuguese
Spanish
Tamil

Código fonte de qiskit.quantum_info.operators.measures

# This code is part of Qiskit.
#
# (C) Copyright IBM 2017.
#
# This code is licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0. You may
# obtain a copy of this license in the LICENSE.txt file in the root directory
# of this source tree or at http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.
#
# Any modifications or derivative works of this code must retain this
# copyright notice, and modified files need to carry a notice indicating
# that they have been altered from the originals.

"""
A collection of useful quantum information functions for operators.
"""

import logging
import warnings
import numpy as np

from qiskit.exceptions import QiskitError, MissingOptionalLibraryError
from qiskit.circuit.gate import Gate
from qiskit.quantum_info.operators.base_operator import BaseOperator
from qiskit.quantum_info.operators.operator import Operator
from qiskit.quantum_info.operators.channel.quantum_channel import QuantumChannel
from qiskit.quantum_info.operators.channel import Choi, SuperOp
from qiskit.quantum_info.states.densitymatrix import DensityMatrix
from qiskit.quantum_info.states.measures import state_fidelity
from qiskit.utils import optionals as _optionals

logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)


[documentos]def process_fidelity(channel, target=None, require_cp=True, require_tp=True): r"""Return the process fidelity of a noisy quantum channel. The process fidelity :math:`F_{\text{pro}}(\mathcal{E}, \mathcal{F})` between two quantum channels :math:`\mathcal{E}, \mathcal{F}` is given by .. math:: F_{\text{pro}}(\mathcal{E}, \mathcal{F}) = F(\rho_{\mathcal{E}}, \rho_{\mathcal{F}}) where :math:`F` is the :func:`~qiskit.quantum_info.state_fidelity`, :math:`\rho_{\mathcal{E}} = \Lambda_{\mathcal{E}} / d` is the normalized :class:`~qiskit.quantum_info.Choi` matrix for the channel :math:`\mathcal{E}`, and :math:`d` is the input dimension of :math:`\mathcal{E}`. When the target channel is unitary this is equivalent to .. math:: F_{\text{pro}}(\mathcal{E}, U) = \frac{Tr[S_U^\dagger S_{\mathcal{E}}]}{d^2} where :math:`S_{\mathcal{E}}, S_{U}` are the :class:`~qiskit.quantum_info.SuperOp` matrices for the *input* quantum channel :math:`\mathcal{E}` and *target* unitary :math:`U` respectively, and :math:`d` is the input dimension of the channel. Args: channel (Operator or QuantumChannel): input quantum channel. target (Operator or QuantumChannel or None): target quantum channel. If `None` target is the identity operator [Default: None]. require_cp (bool): check if input and target channels are completely-positive and if non-CP log warning containing negative eigenvalues of Choi-matrix [Default: True]. require_tp (bool): check if input and target channels are trace-preserving and if non-TP log warning containing negative eigenvalues of partial Choi-matrix :math:`Tr_{\mbox{out}}[\mathcal{E}] - I` [Default: True]. Returns: float: The process fidelity :math:`F_{\text{pro}}`. Raises: QiskitError: if the channel and target do not have the same dimensions. """ # Format inputs channel = _input_formatter(channel, SuperOp, "process_fidelity", "channel") target = _input_formatter(target, Operator, "process_fidelity", "target") if target: # Validate dimensions if channel.dim != target.dim: raise QiskitError( "Input quantum channel and target unitary must have the same " "dimensions ({} != {}).".format(channel.dim, target.dim) ) # Validate complete-positivity and trace-preserving for label, chan in [("Input", channel), ("Target", target)]: if chan is not None and require_cp: cp_cond = _cp_condition(chan) neg = cp_cond < -1 * chan.atol if np.any(neg): logger.warning( "%s channel is not CP. Choi-matrix has negative eigenvalues: %s", label, cp_cond[neg], ) if chan is not None and require_tp: tp_cond = _tp_condition(chan) non_zero = np.logical_not(np.isclose(tp_cond, 0, atol=chan.atol, rtol=chan.rtol)) if np.any(non_zero): logger.warning( "%s channel is not TP. Tr_2[Choi] - I has non-zero eigenvalues: %s", label, tp_cond[non_zero], ) if isinstance(target, Operator): # Compute fidelity with unitary target by applying the inverse # to channel and computing fidelity with the identity channel = channel.compose(target.adjoint()) target = None input_dim, _ = channel.dim if target is None: # Compute process fidelity with identity channel if isinstance(channel, Operator): # |Tr[U]/dim| ** 2 fid = np.abs(np.trace(channel.data) / input_dim) ** 2 else: # Tr[S] / (dim ** 2) fid = np.trace(SuperOp(channel).data) / (input_dim**2) return float(np.real(fid)) # For comparing two non-unitary channels we compute the state fidelity of # the normalized Choi-matrices. This is equivalent to the previous definition # when the target is a unitary channel. state1 = DensityMatrix(Choi(channel).data / input_dim) state2 = DensityMatrix(Choi(target).data / input_dim) return state_fidelity(state1, state2, validate=False)
[documentos]def average_gate_fidelity(channel, target=None, require_cp=True, require_tp=False): r"""Return the average gate fidelity of a noisy quantum channel. The average gate fidelity :math:`F_{\text{ave}}` is given by .. math:: F_{\text{ave}}(\mathcal{E}, U) &= \int d\psi \langle\psi|U^\dagger \mathcal{E}(|\psi\rangle\!\langle\psi|)U|\psi\rangle \\ &= \frac{d F_{\text{pro}}(\mathcal{E}, U) + 1}{d + 1} where :math:`F_{\text{pro}}(\mathcal{E}, U)` is the :meth:`~qiskit.quantum_info.process_fidelity` of the input quantum *channel* :math:`\mathcal{E}` with a *target* unitary :math:`U`, and :math:`d` is the dimension of the *channel*. Args: channel (QuantumChannel or Operator): noisy quantum channel. target (Operator or None): target unitary operator. If `None` target is the identity operator [Default: None]. require_cp (bool): check if input and target channels are completely-positive and if non-CP log warning containing negative eigenvalues of Choi-matrix [Default: True]. require_tp (bool): check if input and target channels are trace-preserving and if non-TP log warning containing negative eigenvalues of partial Choi-matrix :math:`Tr_{\mbox{out}}[\mathcal{E}] - I` [Default: True]. Returns: float: The average gate fidelity :math:`F_{\text{ave}}`. Raises: QiskitError: if the channel and target do not have the same dimensions, or have different input and output dimensions. """ # Format inputs channel = _input_formatter(channel, SuperOp, "average_gate_fidelity", "channel") target = _input_formatter(target, Operator, "average_gate_fidelity", "target") if target is not None: try: target = Operator(target) except QiskitError as ex: raise QiskitError( "Target channel is not a unitary channel. To compare " "two non-unitary channels use the " "`qiskit.quantum_info.process_fidelity` function instead." ) from ex dim, _ = channel.dim f_pro = process_fidelity(channel, target=target, require_cp=require_cp, require_tp=require_tp) return (dim * f_pro + 1) / (dim + 1)
[documentos]def gate_error(channel, target=None, require_cp=True, require_tp=False): r"""Return the gate error of a noisy quantum channel. The gate error :math:`E` is given by the average gate infidelity .. math:: E(\mathcal{E}, U) = 1 - F_{\text{ave}}(\mathcal{E}, U) where :math:`F_{\text{ave}}(\mathcal{E}, U)` is the :meth:`~qiskit.quantum_info.average_gate_fidelity` of the input quantum *channel* :math:`\mathcal{E}` with a *target* unitary :math:`U`. Args: channel (QuantumChannel): noisy quantum channel. target (Operator or None): target unitary operator. If `None` target is the identity operator [Default: None]. require_cp (bool): check if input and target channels are completely-positive and if non-CP log warning containing negative eigenvalues of Choi-matrix [Default: True]. require_tp (bool): check if input and target channels are trace-preserving and if non-TP log warning containing negative eigenvalues of partial Choi-matrix :math:`Tr_{\mbox{out}}[\mathcal{E}] - I` [Default: True]. Returns: float: The average gate error :math:`E`. Raises: QiskitError: if the channel and target do not have the same dimensions, or have different input and output dimensions. """ # Format inputs channel = _input_formatter(channel, SuperOp, "gate_error", "channel") target = _input_formatter(target, Operator, "gate_error", "target") return 1 - average_gate_fidelity( channel, target=target, require_cp=require_cp, require_tp=require_tp )
[documentos]def diamond_norm(choi, **kwargs): r"""Return the diamond norm of the input quantum channel object. This function computes the completely-bounded trace-norm (often referred to as the diamond-norm) of the input quantum channel object using the semidefinite-program from reference [1]. Args: choi(Choi or QuantumChannel): a quantum channel object or Choi-matrix array. kwargs: optional arguments to pass to CVXPY solver. Returns: float: The completely-bounded trace norm :math:`\|\mathcal{E}\|_{\diamond}`. Raises: QiskitError: if CVXPY package cannot be found. Additional Information: The input to this function is typically *not* a CPTP quantum channel, but rather the *difference* between two quantum channels :math:`\|\Delta\mathcal{E}\|_\diamond` where :math:`\Delta\mathcal{E} = \mathcal{E}_1 - \mathcal{E}_2`. Reference: J. Watrous. "Simpler semidefinite programs for completely bounded norms", arXiv:1207.5726 [quant-ph] (2012). .. note:: This function requires the optional CVXPY package to be installed. Any additional kwargs will be passed to the ``cvxpy.solve`` function. See the CVXPY documentation for information on available SDP solvers. """ from scipy import sparse cvxpy = _cvxpy_check("`diamond_norm`") # Check CVXPY is installed choi = Choi(_input_formatter(choi, Choi, "diamond_norm", "choi")) def cvx_bmat(mat_r, mat_i): """Block matrix for embedding complex matrix in reals""" return cvxpy.bmat([[mat_r, -mat_i], [mat_i, mat_r]]) # Dimension of input and output spaces dim_in = choi._input_dim dim_out = choi._output_dim size = dim_in * dim_out # SDP Variables to convert to real valued problem r0_r = cvxpy.Variable((dim_in, dim_in)) r0_i = cvxpy.Variable((dim_in, dim_in)) r0 = cvx_bmat(r0_r, r0_i) r1_r = cvxpy.Variable((dim_in, dim_in)) r1_i = cvxpy.Variable((dim_in, dim_in)) r1 = cvx_bmat(r1_r, r1_i) x_r = cvxpy.Variable((size, size)) x_i = cvxpy.Variable((size, size)) iden = sparse.eye(dim_out) # Watrous uses row-vec convention for his Choi matrix while we use # col-vec. It turns out row-vec convention is requried for CVXPY too # since the cvxpy.kron function must have a constant as its first argument. c_r = cvxpy.bmat([[cvxpy.kron(iden, r0_r), x_r], [x_r.T, cvxpy.kron(iden, r1_r)]]) c_i = cvxpy.bmat([[cvxpy.kron(iden, r0_i), x_i], [-x_i.T, cvxpy.kron(iden, r1_i)]]) c = cvx_bmat(c_r, c_i) # Convert col-vec convention Choi-matrix to row-vec convention and # then take Transpose: Choi_C -> Choi_R.T choi_rt = np.transpose( np.reshape(choi.data, (dim_in, dim_out, dim_in, dim_out)), (3, 2, 1, 0) ).reshape(choi.data.shape) choi_rt_r = choi_rt.real choi_rt_i = choi_rt.imag # Constraints cons = [ r0 >> 0, r0_r == r0_r.T, r0_i == -r0_i.T, cvxpy.trace(r0_r) == 1, r1 >> 0, r1_r == r1_r.T, r1_i == -r1_i.T, cvxpy.trace(r1_r) == 1, c >> 0, ] # Objective function obj = cvxpy.Maximize(cvxpy.trace(choi_rt_r @ x_r) + cvxpy.trace(choi_rt_i @ x_i)) prob = cvxpy.Problem(obj, cons) sol = prob.solve(**kwargs) return sol
def _cvxpy_check(name): """Check that a supported CVXPY version is installed""" # Check if CVXPY package is installed _optionals.HAS_CVXPY.require_now(name) import cvxpy # pylint: disable=import-error # Check CVXPY version version = cvxpy.__version__ if version[0] != "1": raise MissingOptionalLibraryError( "CVXPY >= 1.0", "diamond_norm", msg=f"Incompatible CVXPY version {version} found.", ) return cvxpy # pylint: disable=too-many-return-statements def _input_formatter(obj, fallback_class, func_name, arg_name): """Formatting function for input conversion""" # Empty input if obj is None: return obj # Channel-like input if isinstance(obj, QuantumChannel): return obj if hasattr(obj, "to_quantumchannel"): return obj.to_quantumchannel() if hasattr(obj, "to_channel"): return obj.to_channel() # Unitary-like input if isinstance(obj, (Gate, BaseOperator)): return Operator(obj) if hasattr(obj, "to_operator"): return obj.to_operator() warnings.warn( "Passing in a list or Numpy array to `{}` `{}` argument is " "deprecated as of 0.17.0 since the matrix representation cannot be inferred " "unambiguously. Use a Gate or BaseOperator subclass (eg. Operator, " "SuperOp, Choi) object instead.".format(func_name, arg_name), DeprecationWarning, ) warnings.warn(f"Treating array input as a {fallback_class.__name__} object") return fallback_class(obj) def _cp_condition(channel): """Return Choi-matrix eigenvalues for checking if channel is CP""" if isinstance(channel, QuantumChannel): if not isinstance(channel, Choi): channel = Choi(channel) return np.linalg.eigvalsh(channel.data) unitary = Operator(channel).data return np.tensordot(unitary, unitary.conj(), axes=([0, 1], [0, 1])).real def _tp_condition(channel): """Return partial tr Choi-matrix eigenvalues for checking if channel is TP""" if isinstance(channel, QuantumChannel): if not isinstance(channel, Choi): channel = Choi(channel) choi = channel.data dims = tuple(np.sqrt(choi.shape).astype(int)) shape = dims + dims tr_choi = np.trace(np.reshape(choi, shape), axis1=1, axis2=3) else: unitary = Operator(channel).data tr_choi = np.tensordot(unitary, unitary.conj(), axes=(0, 0)) return np.linalg.eigvalsh(tr_choi - np.eye(len(tr_choi)))