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# qiskit.quantum_info.SparsePauliOp¶

class SparsePauliOp(data, coeffs=None)[소스]

Sparse N-qubit operator in a Pauli basis representation.

This is a sparse representation of an N-qubit matrix Operator in terms of N-qubit PauliTable and complex coefficients.

It can be used for performing operator arithmetic for hundred of qubits if the number of non-zero Pauli basis terms is sufficiently small.

The Pauli basis components are stored as a PauliTable object and can be accessed using the table attribute. The coefficients are stored as a complex Numpy array vector and can be accessed using the coeffs attribute.

Initialize an operator object.

매개변수
• data (PauliTable) – Pauli table of terms.

• coeffs (np.ndarray) – complex coefficients for Pauli terms.

예외

QiskitError – If the input data or coeffs are invalid.

__init__(data, coeffs=None)[소스]

Initialize an operator object.

매개변수
• data (PauliTable) – Pauli table of terms.

• coeffs (np.ndarray) – complex coefficients for Pauli terms.

예외

QiskitError – If the input data or coeffs are invalid.

Methods

 __init__(data[, coeffs]) Initialize an operator object. add(other) Return the linear operator self + other. Return the adjoint of the operator. compose(other[, qargs, front]) Return the composition channel self∘other. Return the conjugate of the operator. Make a deep copy of current operator. dot(other[, qargs]) Return the composition channel self∘other. expand(other) Return the tensor product operator other ⊗ self. from_list(obj) Construct from a list [(pauli_str, coeffs)] from_operator(obj[, atol, rtol]) Construct from an Operator objector. input_dims([qargs]) Return tuple of input dimension for specified subsystems. is_unitary([atol, rtol]) Return True if operator is a unitary matrix. Return a label representation iterator. matrix_iter([sparse]) Return a matrix representation iterator. multiply(other) Return the linear operator other * self. output_dims([qargs]) Return tuple of output dimension for specified subsystems. Return the compose of a operator with itself n times. reshape([input_dims, output_dims]) Return a shallow copy with reshaped input and output subsystem dimensions. set_atol(value) Set the class default absolute tolerance parameter for float comparisons. set_rtol(value) Set the class default relative tolerance parameter for float comparisons. simplify([atol, rtol]) Simplify PauliTable by combining duplicaties and removing zeros. subtract(other) Return the linear operator self - other. tensor(other) Return the tensor product operator self ⊗ other. to_list([array]) Convert to a list Pauli string labels and coefficients. to_matrix([sparse]) Convert to a dense or sparse matrix. Convert to a matrix Operator object Return the transpose of the operator.

Attributes

 atol The default absolute tolerance parameter for float comparisons. coeffs Return the Pauli coefficients. dim Return tuple (input_shape, output_shape). num_qubits Return the number of qubits if a N-qubit operator or None otherwise. qargs Return the qargs for the operator. rtol The relative tolerance parameter for float comparisons. size The number of Pauli of Pauli terms in the operator. table Return the the PauliTable.
add(other)

Return the linear operator self + other.

DEPRECATED: use operator + other instead.

매개변수

other (BaseOperator) – an operator object.

반환값

the operator self + other.

반환 형식

BaseOperator

adjoint()[소스]

Return the adjoint of the operator.

property atol

The default absolute tolerance parameter for float comparisons.

property coeffs

Return the Pauli coefficients.

compose(other, qargs=None, front=False)[소스]

Return the composition channel self∘other.

매개변수
• other (SparsePauliOp) – an operator object.

• qargs (list or None) – a list of subsystem positions to compose other on.

• front (bool or None) – If False compose in standard order other(self(input)) otherwise compose in reverse order self(other(input)) [default: False]

반환값

The composed operator.

반환 형식

SparsePauliOp

예외
• QiskitError – if other cannot be converted to an Operator or has

• incompatible dimensions.

conjugate()[소스]

Return the conjugate of the operator.

copy()

Make a deep copy of current operator.

property dim

Return tuple (input_shape, output_shape).

dot(other, qargs=None)[소스]

Return the composition channel self∘other.

매개변수
• other (SparsePauliOp) – an operator object.

• qargs (list or None) – a list of subsystem positions to compose other on.

반환값

The composed operator.

반환 형식

SparsePauliOp

예외
• QiskitError – if other cannot be converted to an Operator or has

• incompatible dimensions.

expand(other)[소스]

Return the tensor product operator other ⊗ self.

매개변수

other (SparsePauliOp) – an operator object.

반환값

the tensor product operator other ⊗ self.

반환 형식

SparsePauliOp

예외

QiskitError – if other cannot be converted to a SparsePauliOp operator.

static from_list(obj)[소스]

Construct from a list [(pauli_str, coeffs)]

static from_operator(obj, atol=None, rtol=None)[소스]

Construct from an Operator objector.

Note that the cost of this contruction is exponential as it involves taking inner products with every element of the N-qubit Pauli basis.

매개변수
• obj (Operator) – an N-qubit operator.

• atol (float) – Optional. Absolute tolerance for checking if coefficients are zero (Default: 1e-8).

• rtol (float) – Optinoal. relative tolerance for checking if coefficients are zero (Default: 1e-5).

반환값

the SparsePauliOp representation of the operator.

반환 형식

SparsePauliOp

예외

QiskitError – if the input operator is not an N-qubit operator.

input_dims(qargs=None)

Return tuple of input dimension for specified subsystems.

is_unitary(atol=None, rtol=None)[소스]

Return True if operator is a unitary matrix.

매개변수
• atol (float) – Optional. Absolute tolerance for checking if coefficients are zero (Default: 1e-8).

• rtol (float) – Optinoal. relative tolerance for checking if coefficients are zero (Default: 1e-5).

반환값

True if the operator is unitary, False otherwise.

반환 형식

bool

label_iter()[소스]

Return a label representation iterator.

This is a lazy iterator that converts each term in the SparsePauliOp into a tuple (label, coeff). To convert the entire table to labels use the to_labels() method.

반환값

label iterator object for the PauliTable.

반환 형식

LabelIterator

matrix_iter(sparse=False)[소스]

Return a matrix representation iterator.

This is a lazy iterator that converts each term in the SparsePauliOp into a matrix as it is used. To convert to a single matrix use the to_matrix() method.

매개변수

sparse (bool) – optionally return sparse CSR matrices if True, otherwise return Numpy array matrices (Default: False)

반환값

matrix iterator object for the PauliTable.

반환 형식

MatrixIterator

multiply(other)

Return the linear operator other * self.

DEPRECATED: use other * operator instead.

매개변수

other (complex) – a complex number.

반환값

the linear operator other * self.

반환 형식

BaseOperator

예외

NotImplementedError – if subclass does not support multiplication.

property num_qubits

Return the number of qubits if a N-qubit operator or None otherwise.

output_dims(qargs=None)

Return tuple of output dimension for specified subsystems.

power(n)

Return the compose of a operator with itself n times.

매개변수

n (int) – the number of times to compose with self (n>0).

반환값

the n-times composed operator.

반환 형식

BaseOperator

예외

QiskitError – if the input and output dimensions of the operator are not equal, or the power is not a positive integer.

property qargs

Return the qargs for the operator.

reshape(input_dims=None, output_dims=None)

Return a shallow copy with reshaped input and output subsystem dimensions.

Arg:
input_dims (None or tuple): new subsystem input dimensions.

If None the original input dims will be preserved [Default: None].

output_dims (None or tuple): new subsystem output dimensions.

If None the original output dims will be preserved [Default: None].

반환값

returns self with reshaped input and output dimensions.

반환 형식

BaseOperator

예외

QiskitError – if combined size of all subsystem input dimension or subsystem output dimensions is not constant.

property rtol

The relative tolerance parameter for float comparisons.

classmethod set_atol(value)

Set the class default absolute tolerance parameter for float comparisons.

DEPRECATED: use operator.atol = value instead

classmethod set_rtol(value)

Set the class default relative tolerance parameter for float comparisons.

DEPRECATED: use operator.rtol = value instead

simplify(atol=None, rtol=None)[소스]

Simplify PauliTable by combining duplicaties and removing zeros.

매개변수
• atol (float) – Optional. Absolute tolerance for checking if coefficients are zero (Default: 1e-8).

• rtol (float) – Optinoal. relative tolerance for checking if coefficients are zero (Default: 1e-5).

반환값

the simplified SparsePauliOp operator.

반환 형식

SparsePauliOp

property size

The number of Pauli of Pauli terms in the operator.

subtract(other)

Return the linear operator self - other.

DEPRECATED: use operator - other instead.

매개변수

other (BaseOperator) – an operator object.

반환값

the operator self - other.

반환 형식

BaseOperator

property table

Return the the PauliTable.

tensor(other)[소스]

Return the tensor product operator self ⊗ other.

매개변수

other (SparsePauliOp) – a operator subclass object.

반환값

the tensor product operator self ⊗ other.

반환 형식

SparsePauliOp

예외

QiskitError – if other cannot be converted to a SparsePauliOp operator.

to_list(array=False)[소스]

Convert to a list Pauli string labels and coefficients.

For operators with a lot of terms converting using the array=True kwarg will be more efficient since it allocates memory for the full Numpy array of labels in advance.

매개변수

array (bool) – return a Numpy array if True, otherwise return a list (Default: False).

반환값

List of pairs (label, coeff) for rows of the PauliTable.

반환 형식

list or array

to_matrix(sparse=False)[소스]

Convert to a dense or sparse matrix.

매개변수

sparse (bool) – if True return a sparse CSR matrix, otherwise return dense Numpy array (Default: False).

반환값

A dense matrix if sparse=False. csr_matrix: A sparse matrix in CSR format if sparse=True.

반환 형식

array

to_operator()[소스]

Convert to a matrix Operator object

transpose()[소스]

Return the transpose of the operator.