# 릴리스 노트¶

## Version History¶

This table tracks the meta-package versions and the version of each Qiskit element installed:

Qiskit Metapackage Version |
qiskit-terra |
qiskit-aer |
qiskit-ignis |
qiskit-ibmq-provider |
qiskit-aqua |
---|

참고

`0.7.0`

, `0.7.1`

, `0.7.2`

메타-패키지 릴리즈에 대해서는 버전_전략(versioning_strategy) 정책이 아직 공식적으로 정해지지 않았다.

## Notable Changes¶

### Qiskit 0.23.1¶

#### Terra 0.16.1¶

##### 버그 수정¶

Fixed an issue where an error was thrown in execute for valid circuits built with delays.

The QASM definition of 〈c4x〉 in qelib1.inc has been corrected to match the standard library definition for C4XGate.

Fixes a bug in subtraction for quantum channels \(A - B\) where \(B\) was an

`Operator`

object. Negation was being applied to the matrix in the Operator representation which is not equivalent to negation in the quantum channel representation.Changes the way

`_evolve_instruction()`

access qubits to handle the case of an instruction with multiple registers.

#### Aer 0.7.1¶

##### Upgrade Notes¶

The minimum cmake version to build qiskit-aer has increased from 3.6 to 3.8. This change was necessary to enable fixing GPU version builds that support running on x86_64 CPUs lacking AVX2 instructions.

##### 버그 수정¶

qiskit-aer with GPU support will now work on systems with x86_64 CPUs lacking AVX2 instructions. Previously, the GPU package would only run if the AVX2 instructions were available. Fixes #1023

Fixes bug with

`AerProvider`

where options set on the returned backends using`set_options()`

were stored in the provider and would persist for subsequent calls to`get_backend()`

for the same named backend. Now every call to and`backends()`

returns a new instance of the simulator backend that can be configured.Fixes bug in the error message returned when a circuit contains unsupported simulator instructions. Previously some supported instructions were also being listed in the error message along with the unsupported instructions.

Fix bug where the 《sx》` gate

`SXGate`

was not listed as a supported gate in the C++ code, in StateOpSet of matrix_product_state.hp.Fix bug where

`"csx"`

,`"cu2"`

,`"cu3"`

were incorrectly listed as supported basis gates for the`"density_matrix"`

method of the`QasmSimulator`

.In MPS, apply_kraus was operating directly on the input bits in the parameter qubits, instead of on the internal qubits. In the MPS algorithm, the qubits are constantly moving around so all operations should be applied to the internal qubits.

When invoking MPS::sample_measure, we need to first sort the qubits to the default ordering because this is the assumption in qasm_controller.This is done by invoking the method move_all_qubits_to_sorted_ordering. It was correct in sample_measure_using_apply_measure, but missing in sample_measure_using_probabilities.

#### Ignis 0.5.1¶

##### 버그 수정¶

Fix the

`"auto"`

method of the`TomographyFitter`

,`StateTomographyFitter`

, and`ProcessTomographyFitter`

to only use`"cvx"`

if CVXPY is installed*and*a third-party SDP solver other than SCS is available. This is because the SCS solver has lower accuracy than other solver methods and often returns a density matrix or Choi-matrix that is not completely-positive and fails validation when used with the`qiskit.quantum_info.state_fidelity()`

or`qiskit.quantum_info.process_fidelity()`

functions.

#### Aqua 0.8.1¶

#### 0.8.1¶

##### 새로운 기능¶

A new algorithm has been added: the Born Openheimer Potential Energy surface for the calculation of potential energy surface along different degrees of freedom of the molecule. The algorithm is called

`BOPESSampler`

. It further provides functionalities of fitting the potential energy surface to an analytic function of predefined potentials.some details.

##### Critical Issues¶

Be aware that

`initial_state`

parameter in`QAOA`

has now different implementation as a result of a bug fix. The previous implementation wrongly mixed the user provided`initial_state`

with Hadamard gates. The issue is fixed now. No attention needed if your code does not make use of the user provided`initial_state`

parameter.

##### 버그 수정¶

optimize_svm method of qp_solver would sometimes fail resulting in an error like this ValueError: cannot reshape array of size 1 into shape (200,1) This addresses the issue by adding an L2 norm parameter, lambda2, which defaults to 0.001 but can be changed via the QSVM algorithm, as needed, to facilitate convergence.

A method

`one_letter_symbol`

has been removed from the`VarType`

in the latest build of DOCplex making Aqua incompatible with this version. So instead of using this method an explicit type check of variable types has been introduced in the Aqua optimization module.:meth`~qiskit.aqua.operators.state_fns.DictStateFn.sample()` could only handle real amplitudes, but it is fixed to handle complex amplitudes. #1311 <https://github.com/Qiskit/qiskit-aqua/issues/1311> for more details.

Trotter class did not use the reps argument in constructor. #1317 <https://github.com/Qiskit/qiskit-aqua/issues/1317> for more details.

Raise an AquaError if :class`qiskit.aqua.operators.converters.CircuitSampler` samples an empty operator. #1321 <https://github.com/Qiskit/qiskit-aqua/issues/1321> for more details.

`to_opflow()`

returns a correct operator when coefficients are complex numbers. #1381 <https://github.com/Qiskit/qiskit-aqua/issues/1381> for more details.Let backend simulators validate NoiseModel support instead of restricting to Aer only in QuantumInstance.

Correctly handle PassManager on QuantumInstance

`transpile`

method by calling its`run`

method if it exists.A bug that mixes custom

`initial_state`

in`QAOA`

with Hadamard gates has been fixed. This doesn’t change functionality of QAOA if no initial_state is provided by the user. Attention should be taken if your implementation uses QAOA with cusom`initial_state`

parameter as the optimization results might differ.Previously, setting seed_simulator=0 in the QuantumInstance did not set any seed. This was only affecting the value 0. This has been fixed.

#### IBM Q Provider 0.11.0¶

##### 새로운 기능¶

`qiskit.providers.ibmq.experiment.Experiment`

now has three additional attributes, hub, group, and project, that identify the provider used to create the experiment.Methods

`qiskit.providers.ibmq.experiment.ExperimentService.experiments()`

and`qiskit.providers.ibmq.experiment.ExperimentService.analysis_results()`

now support a`limit`

parameter that allows you to limit the number of experiments and analysis results returned.

##### Upgrade Notes¶

A new parameter,

`limit`

is now the first parameter for both`qiskit.providers.ibmq.experiment.ExperimentService.experiments()`

and`qiskit.providers.ibmq.experiment.ExperimentService.analysis_results()`

methods. This`limit`

has a default value of 10, meaning by deafult only 10 experiments and analysis results will be returned.

##### 버그 수정¶

Fixes the issue wherein a job could be left in the

`CREATING`

state if job submit fails half-way through.Fixes the infinite loop raised when passing an

`IBMQRandomService`

instance to a child process.

### Qiskit 0.23.0¶

#### Terra 0.16.0¶

##### 도입¶

The 0.16.0 release includes several new features and bug fixes. The major features in this release are the following:

Introduction of scheduled circuits, where delays can be used to control the timing and alignment of operations in the circuit.

Compilation of quantum circuits from classical functions, such as oracles.

Ability to compile and optimize single qubit rotations over different Euler basis as well as the phase + square-root(X) basis (i.e.

`['p', 'sx']`

), which will replace the older IBM Quantum basis of`['u1', 'u2', 'u3']`

.Tracking of

`global_phase()`

on the`QuantumCircuit`

class has been extended through the`transpiler`

,`quantum_info`

, and`assembler`

modules, as well as the BasicAer and Aer simulators. Unitary and state vector simulations will now return global phase-correct unitary matrices and state vectors.

Also of particular importance for this release is that Python 3.5 is no longer supported. If you are using Qiskit Terra with Python 3.5, the 0.15.2 release is that last version which will work.

##### 새로운 기능¶

Global R gates have been added to

`qiskit.circuit.library`

. This includes the global R gate (`GR`

), global Rx (`GRX`

) and global Ry (`GRY`

) gates which are derived from the`GR`

gate, and global Rz (`GRZ`

) that is defined in a similar way to the`GR`

gates. The global R gates are defined on a number of qubits simultaneously, and act as a direct sum of R gates on each qubit.For example:

from qiskit import QuantumCircuit, QuantumRegister import numpy as np num_qubits = 3 qr = QuantumRegister(num_qubits) qc = QuantumCircuit(qr) qc.compose(GR(num_qubits, theta=np.pi/3, phi=2*np.pi/3), inplace=True)

will create a

`QuantumCircuit`

on a`QuantumRegister`

of 3 qubits and perform a`RGate`

of an angle \(\theta = \frac{\pi}{3}\) about an axis in the xy-plane of the Bloch spheres that makes an angle of \(\phi = \frac{2\pi}{3}\) with the x-axis on each qubit.A new color scheme,

`iqx`

, has been added to the`mpl`

backend for the circuit drawer`qiskit.visualization.circuit_drawer()`

and`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit.draw()`

. This uses the same color scheme as the Circuit Composer on the IBM Quantum Experience website. There are now 3 available color schemes -`default`

,`iqx`

, and`bw`

.There are two ways to select a color scheme. The first is to use a user config file, by default in the

`~/.qiskit`

directory, in the file`settings.conf`

under the`[Default]`

heading, a user can enter`circuit_mpl_style = iqx`

to select the`iqx`

color scheme.The second way is to add

`{'name': 'iqx'}`

to the`style`

kwarg to the`QuantumCircuit.draw`

method or to the`circuit_drawer`

function. The second way will override the setting in the settings.conf file. For example:from qiskit.circuit import QuantumCircuit circuit = QuantumCircuit(2) circuit.h(0) circuit.cx(0, 1) circuit.measure_all() circuit.draw('mpl', style={'name': 'iqx'})

In the

`style`

kwarg for the the circuit drawer`qiskit.visualization.circuit_drawer()`

and`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit.draw()`

the`displaycolor`

field with the`mpl`

backend now allows for entering both the gate color and the text color for each gate type in the form`(gate_color, text_color)`

. This allows the use of light and dark gate colors with contrasting text colors. Users can still set only the gate color, in which case the`gatetextcolor`

field will be used. Gate colors can be set in the`style`

dict for any number of gate types, from one to the entire`displaycolor`

dict. For example:from qiskit.circuit import QuantumCircuit circuit = QuantumCircuit(1) circuit.h(0) style_dict = {'displaycolor': {'h': ('#FA74A6', '#000000')}} circuit.draw('mpl', style=style_dict)

or

style_dict = {'displaycolor': {'h': '#FA74A6'}} circuit.draw('mpl', style=style_dict)

Two alignment contexts are added to the pulse builder (

`qiskit.pulse.builder`

) to facilitate writing a repeated pulse sequence with delays.`qiskit.pulse.builder.align_equispaced()`

inserts delays with equivalent length in between pulse schedules within the context.`qiskit.pulse.builder.align_func()`

offers more advanced control of pulse position. This context takes a callable that calculates a fractional coordinate of i-th pulse and aligns pulses within the context. This makes coding of dynamical decoupling easy.

A

`rep_delay`

parameter has been added to the`QasmQobj`

class under the run configuration,`QasmQobjConfig`

. This parameter is used to denote the time between program executions. It must be chosen from the backend range given by the`BackendConfiguration`

method`rep_delay_range()`

. If a value is not provided a backend default,`qiskit.providers.models.BackendConfiguration.default_rep_delay`

, will be used.`rep_delay`

will only work on backends which allow for dynamic repetition time. This is can be checked with the`BackendConfiguration`

property`dynamic_reprate_enabled`

.The

`qobj_schema.json`

JSON Schema file in`qiskit.schemas`

has been updated to include the`rep_delay`

as an optional configuration property for QASM Qobjs.The

`backend_configuration_schema.json`

JSON Schema file in`qiskit.schemas`

has been updated to include`dynamic_reprate_enabled`

,`rep_delay_range`

and`default_rep_delay`

as optional properties for a QASM backend configuration payload.A new optimization pass,

`qiskit.transpiler.passes.TemplateOptimization`

has been added to the transpiler. This pass applies a template matching algorithm described in arXiv:1909.05270 that replaces all compatible maximal matches in the circuit.To implement this new transpiler pass a new module,

`template_circuits`

, was added to the circuit library (`qiskit.circuit.library`

). This new module contains all the Toffoli circuit templates used in the`TemplateOptimization`

.This new pass is

**not**currently included in the preset pass managers (`qiskit.transpiler.preset_passmanagers`

), to use it you will need to create a custom`PassManager`

.A new version of the providers interface has been added. This new interface, which can be found in

`qiskit.providers`

, provides a new versioning mechanism that will enable changes to the interface to happen in a compatible manner over time. The new interface should be simple to migrate existing providers, as it is mostly identical except for the explicit versioning.Besides having explicitly versioned abstract classes the key changes for the new interface are that the

`BackendV1`

method`run()`

can now take a`QuantumCircuit`

or`Schedule`

object as inputs instead of`Qobj`

objects. To go along with that options are now part of a backend class so that users can configure run time options when running with a circuit. The final change is that`qiskit.providers.JobV1`

can now be synchronous or asynchronous, the exact configuration and method for configuring this is up to the provider, but there are interface hook points to make it explicit which execution model a job is running under in the`JobV1`

abstract class.A new kwarg,

`inplace`

, has been added to the function`qiskit.result.marginal_counts()`

. This kwarg is used to control whether the contents are marginalized in place or a new copy is returned, for`Result`

object input. This parameter does not have any effect for an input`dict`

or`Counts`

object.An initial version of a classical function compiler,

`qiskit.circuit.classicalfunction`

, has been added. This enables compiling typed python functions (operating only on bits of type`Int1`

at the moment) into`QuantumCircuit`

objects. For example:from qiskit.circuit import classical_function, Int1 @classical_function def grover_oracle(a: Int1, b: Int1, c: Int1, d: Int1) -> Int1: x = not a and b y = d and not c z = not x or y return z quantum_circuit = grover_oracle.synth() quantum_circuit.draw()

q_0: ──o────■────■────o──────────── │ │ │ │ q_1: ──o────o────┼────┼────■────o── │ │ │ │ │ │ q_2: ──o────■────o────┼────■────┼── │ │ │ │ │ │ q_3: ──■────┼────■────┼────■────■── ┌─┴─┐┌─┴─┐┌─┴─┐┌─┴─┐┌─┴─┐┌─┴─┐ q_4: ┤ X ├┤ X ├┤ X ├┤ X ├┤ X ├┤ X ├ └───┘└───┘└───┘└───┘└───┘└───┘

The parameter

`registerless=False`

in the`qiskit.circuit.classicalfunction.ClassicalFunction`

method`synth()`

creates a circuit with registers refering to the parameter names. For example:quantum_circuit = grover_oracle.synth(registerless=False) quantum_circuit.draw()

d_0: ──o────■────■────o──────────── │ │ │ │ c_0: ──o────o────┼────┼────■────o── │ │ │ │ │ │ b_0: ──o────■────o────┼────■────┼── │ │ │ │ │ │ a_0: ──■────┼────■────┼────■────■── ┌─┴─┐┌─┴─┐┌─┴─┐┌─┴─┐┌─┴─┐┌─┴─┐ return_0: ┤ X ├┤ X ├┤ X ├┤ X ├┤ X ├┤ X ├ └───┘└───┘└───┘└───┘└───┘└───┘

A decorated classical function can be used the same way as any other quantum gate when appending it to a circuit.

circuit = QuantumCircuit(5) circuit.append(grover_oracle, range(5)) circuit.draw()

┌────────────────┐ q_0: ┤0 ├ │ │ q_1: ┤1 ├ │ │ q_2: ┤2 GROVER_ORACLE ├ │ │ q_3: ┤3 ├ │ │ q_4: ┤4 ├ └────────────────┘

The

`GROVER_ORACLE`

gate is synthesized when its decomposition is required.circuit.decompose().draw()

q_0: ──o────■────■────o──────────── │ │ │ │ q_1: ──o────o────┼────┼────■────o── │ │ │ │ │ │ q_2: ──o────■────o────┼────■────┼── │ │ │ │ │ │ q_3: ──■────┼────■────┼────■────■── ┌─┴─┐┌─┴─┐┌─┴─┐┌─┴─┐┌─┴─┐┌─┴─┐ q_4: ┤ X ├┤ X ├┤ X ├┤ X ├┤ X ├┤ X ├ └───┘└───┘└───┘└───┘└───┘└───┘

The feature requires

`tweedledum`

, a library for synthesizing quantum circuits, that can be installed via pip with`pip install tweedledum`

.A new class

`qiskit.circuit.Delay`

for representing a delay instruction in a circuit has been added. A new method`delay()`

is now available for easily appending delays to circuits. This makes it possible to describe timing-sensitive experiments (e.g. T1/T2 experiment) in the circuit level.from qiskit import QuantumCircuit qc = QuantumCircuit(1, 1) qc.delay(500, 0, unit='ns') qc.measure(0, 0) qc.draw()

┌────────────────┐┌─┐ q_0: ┤ DELAY(500[ns]) ├┤M├ └────────────────┘└╥┘ c: 1/═══════════════════╩═ 0

A new argument

`scheduling_method`

for`qiskit.compiler.transpile()`

has been added. It is required when transpiling circuits with delays. If`scheduling_method`

is specified, the transpiler returns a scheduled circuit such that all idle times in it are padded with delays (i.e. start time of each instruction is uniquely determined). This makes it possible to see how scheduled instructions (gates) look in the circuit level.from qiskit import QuantumCircuit, transpile from qiskit.test.mock.backends import FakeAthens qc = QuantumCircuit(2) qc.h(0) qc.cx(0, 1) scheduled_circuit = transpile(qc, backend=FakeAthens(), scheduling_method="alap") print("Duration in dt:", scheduled_circuit.duration) scheduled_circuit.draw(idle_wires=False)

Duration in dt: 2016

┌─────────┐ q_0 -> 0 ────┤ U2(0,π) ├──────■── ┌──┴─────────┴───┐┌─┴─┐ q_1 -> 1 ─┤ DELAY(160[dt]) ├┤ X ├ ┌┴────────────────┤└───┘ ancilla_0 -> 2 ┤ DELAY(2016[dt]) ├───── ├─────────────────┤ ancilla_1 -> 3 ┤ DELAY(2016[dt]) ├───── ├─────────────────┤ ancilla_2 -> 4 ┤ DELAY(2016[dt]) ├───── └─────────────────┘

See also

`timeline_drawer()`

for the best visualization of scheduled circuits.A new fuction

`qiskit.compiler.sequence()`

has been also added so that we can convert a scheduled circuit into a`Schedule`

to make it executable on a pulse-enabled backend.from qiskit.compiler import sequence sched = sequence(scheduled_circuit, pulse_enabled_backend)

The

`schedule()`

has been updated so that it can schedule circuits with delays. Now there are two paths to schedule a circuit with delay:qc = QuantumCircuit(1, 1) qc.h(0) qc.delay(500, 0, unit='ns') qc.h(0) qc.measure(0, 0) sched_path1 = schedule(qc.decompose(), backend) sched_path2 = sequence(transpile(qc, backend, scheduling_method='alap'), backend) assert pad(sched_path1) == sched_path2

Refer to the release notes and documentation for

`transpile()`

and`sequence()`

for the details on the other path.Added the

`GroverOperator`

to the circuit library (`qiskit.circuit.library`

) to construct the Grover operator used in Grover’s search algorithm and Quantum Amplitude Amplification/Estimation. Provided with an oracle in form of a circuit,`GroverOperator`

creates the textbook Grover operator. To generalize this for amplitude amplification and use a generic operator instead of Hadamard gates as state preparation, the`state_in`

argument can be used.The

`InstructionScheduleMap`

methods`get()`

and`pop()`

methods now take`ParameterExpression`

instances in addition to numerical values for schedule generator parameters. If the generator is a function, expressions may be bound before or within the function call. If the generator is a`ParametrizedSchedule`

, expressions must be bound before the schedule itself is bound/called.A new class

`LinearAmplitudeFunction`

was added to the circuit library (`qiskit.circuit.library`

) for mapping (piecewise) linear functions on qubit amplitudes,\[F|x\rangle |0\rangle = \sqrt{1 - f(x)}|x\rangle |0\rangle + \sqrt{f(x)}|x\rangle |1\rangle\]The mapping is based on a controlled Pauli Y-rotations and a Taylor approximation, as described in https://arxiv.org/abs/1806.06893. This circuit can be used to compute expectation values of linear functions using the quantum amplitude estimation algorithm.

The new jupyter magic

`monospaced_output`

has been added to the`qiskit.tools.jupyter`

module. This magic sets the Jupyter notebook output font to 《Courier New》, when possible. When used this fonts returns text circuit drawings that are better aligned.import qiskit.tools.jupyter %monospaced_output

A new transpiler pass,

`Optimize1qGatesDecomposition`

, has been added. This transpiler pass is an alternative to the existing`Optimize1qGates`

that uses the`OneQubitEulerDecomposer`

class to decompose and simplify a chain of single qubit gates. This method is compatible with any basis set, while`Optimize1qGates`

only works for u1, u2, and u3. The default pass managers for`optimization_level`

1, 2, and 3 have been updated to use this new pass if the basis set doesn’t include u1, u2, or u3.The

`OneQubitEulerDecomposer`

now supports two new basis,`'PSX'`

and`'U'`

. These can be specified with the`basis`

kwarg on the constructor. This will decompose the matrix into a circuit using`PGate`

and`SXGate`

for`'PSX'`

, and`UGate`

for`'U'`

.A new method

`remove()`

has been added to the`qiskit.transpiler.PassManager`

class. This method enables removing a pass from a`PassManager`

instance. It works on indexes, similar to`replace()`

. For example, to remove the`RemoveResetInZeroState`

pass from the pass manager used at optimization level 1:from qiskit.transpiler.preset_passmanagers import level_1_pass_manager from qiskit.transpiler.passmanager_config import PassManagerConfig pm = level_1_pass_manager(PassManagerConfig()) pm.draw()

[0] FlowLinear: UnrollCustomDefinitions, BasisTranslator [1] FlowLinear: RemoveResetInZeroState [2] DoWhile: Depth, FixedPoint, Optimize1qGates, CXCancellation

The stage

`[1]`

with`RemoveResetInZeroState`

can be removed like this:pass_manager.remove(1) pass_manager.draw()

[0] FlowLinear: UnrollCustomDefinitions, BasisTranslator [1] DoWhile: Depth, FixedPoint, Optimize1qGates, CXCancellation

Several classes to load probability distributions into qubit amplitudes;

`UniformDistribution`

,`NormalDistribution`

, and`LogNormalDistribution`

were added to the circuit library (`qiskit.circuit.library`

). The normal and log-normal distribution support both univariate and multivariate distributions. These circuits are central to applications in finance where quantum amplitude estimation is used.Support for pulse gates has been added to the

`QuantumCircuit`

class. This enables a`QuantumCircuit`

to override (for basis gates) or specify (for standard and custom gates) a definition of a`Gate`

operation in terms of time-ordered signals across hardware channels. In other words, it enables the option to provide pulse-level custom gate calibrations.The circuits are built exactly as before. For example:

from qiskit import pulse from qiskit.circuit import QuantumCircuit, Gate class RxGate(Gate): def __init__(self, theta): super().__init__('rxtheta', 1, [theta]) circ = QuantumCircuit(1) circ.h(0) circ.append(RxGate(3.14), [0])

Then, the calibration for the gate can be registered using the

`QuantumCircuit`

method`add_calibration()`

which takes a`Schedule`

definition as well as the qubits and parameters that it is defined for:# Define the gate implementation as a schedule with pulse.build() as custom_h_schedule: pulse.play(pulse.library.Drag(...), pulse.DriveChannel(0)) with pulse.build() as q1_x180: pulse.play(pulse.library.Gaussian(...), pulse.DriveChannel(1)) # Register the schedule to the gate circ.add_calibration('h', [0], custom_h_schedule) # or gate.name string to register circ.add_calibration(RxGate(3.14), [0], q1_x180) # Can accept gate

Previously, this functionality could only be used through complete Pulse Schedules. Additionally, circuits can now be submitted to backends with your custom definitions (dependent on backend support).

Circuits with pulse gates can still be lowered to a

`Schedule`

by using the`schedule()`

function.The calibrated gate can also be transpiled using the regular transpilation process:

transpiled_circuit = transpile(circ, backend)

The transpiled circuit will leave the calibrated gates on the same qubit as the original circuit and will not unroll them to the basis gates.

Support for disassembly of

`PulseQobj`

objects has been added to the`qiskit.assembler.disassemble()`

function. For example:from qiskit import pulse from qiskit.assembler.disassemble import disassemble from qiskit.compiler.assemble import assemble from qiskit.test.mock import FakeOpenPulse2Q backend = FakeOpenPulse2Q() d0 = pulse.DriveChannel(0) d1 = pulse.DriveChannel(1) with pulse.build(backend) as sched: with pulse.align_right(): pulse.play(pulse.library.Constant(10, 1.0), d0) pulse.shift_phase(3.11, d0) pulse.measure_all() qobj = assemble(sched, backend=backend, shots=512) scheds, run_config, header = disassemble(qobj)

A new kwarg,

`coord_type`

has been added to`qiskit.visualization.plot_bloch_vector()`

. This kwarg enables changing the coordinate system used for the input parameter that describes the positioning of the vector on the Bloch sphere in the generated visualization. There are 2 supported values for this new kwarg,`'cartesian'`

(the default value) and`'spherical'`

. If the`coord_type`

kwarg is set to`'spherical'`

the list of parameters taken in are of the form`[r, theta, phi]`

where`r`

is the radius,`theta`

is the inclination from +z direction, and`phi`

is the azimuth from +x direction. For example:from numpy import pi from qiskit.visualization import plot_bloch_vector x = 0 y = 0 z = 1 r = 1 theta = pi phi = 0 # Cartesian coordinates, where (x,y,z) are cartesian coordinates # for bloch vector plot_bloch_vector([x,y,z])

plot_bloch_vector([x,y,z], coord_type="cartesian") # Same as line above

# Spherical coordinates, where (r,theta,phi) are spherical coordinates # for bloch vector plot_bloch_vector([r, theta, phi], coord_type="spherical")

Pulse

`Schedule`

objects now support using`ParameterExpression`

objects for parameters.For example:

from qiskit.circuit import Parameter from qiskit import pulse alpha = Parameter('⍺') phi = Parameter('ϕ') qubit = Parameter('q') amp = Parameter('amp') schedule = pulse.Schedule() schedule += SetFrequency(alpha, DriveChannel(qubit)) schedule += ShiftPhase(phi, DriveChannel(qubit)) schedule += Play(Gaussian(duration=128, sigma=4, amp=amp), DriveChannel(qubit)) schedule += ShiftPhase(-phi, DriveChannel(qubit))

Parameter assignment is done via the

`assign_parameters()`

method:schedule.assign_parameters({alpha: 4.5e9, phi: 1.57, qubit: 0, amp: 0.2})

Expressions and partial assignment also work, such as:

beta = Parameter('b') schedule += SetFrequency(alpha + beta, DriveChannel(0)) schedule.assign_parameters({alpha: 4.5e9}) schedule.assign_parameters({beta: phi / 6.28})

A new visualization function

`timeline_drawer()`

was added to the`qiskit.visualization`

module.For example:

from qiskit.visualization import timeline_drawer from qiskit import QuantumCircuit, transpile from qiskit.test.mock import FakeAthens qc = QuantumCircuit(2) qc.h(0) qc.cx(0,1) timeline_drawer(transpile(qc, FakeAthens(), scheduling_method='alap'))

##### Upgrade Notes¶

Type checking for the

`params`

kwarg of the constructor for the`Gate`

class and its subclasses has been changed. Previously all`Gate`

parameters had to be in a set of allowed types defined in the`Instruction`

class. Now a new method,`validate_parameter()`

is used to determine if a parameter type is valid or not. The definition of this method in a subclass will take priority over its parent. For example,`UnitaryGate`

accepts a parameter of the type`numpy.ndarray`

and defines a custom`validate_parameter()`

method that returns the parameter if it’s an`numpy.ndarray`

. This takes priority over the function defined in its parent class`Gate`

. If`UnitaryGate`

were to be used as parent for a new class, this`validate_parameter`

method would be used unless the new child class defines its own method.The previously deprecated methods, arguments, and properties named

`n_qubits`

and`numberofqubits`

have been removed. These were deprecated in the 0.13.0 release. The full set of changes are:클래스

Old

New

`n_qubits`

`numberofqubits`

Function

Old Argument

New Argument

`n_qubits`

`num_qubits`

`n_qubits`

`num_qubits`

Inserting a parameterized

`Gate`

instance into a`QuantumCircuit`

now creates a copy of that gate which is used in the circuit. If changes are made to the instance inserted into the circuit it will no longer be reflected in the gate in the circuit. This change was made to fix an issue when inserting a single parameterized`Gate`

object into multiple circuits.The function

`qiskit.result.marginal_counts()`

now, by default, does not modify the`qiskit.result.Result`

instance parameter. Previously, the`Result`

object was always modified in place. A new kwarg`inplace`

has been added`marginal_counts()`

which enables using the previous behavior when`inplace=True`

is set.The

`U3Gate`

definition has been changed to be in terms of the`UGate`

class. The`UGate`

class has no definition. It is therefore not possible to unroll**every**circuit in terms of U3 and CX anymore. Instead, U and CX can be used for**every**circuit.The deprecated support for running Qiskit Terra with Python 3.5 has been removed. To use Qiskit Terra from this release onward you will now need to use at least Python 3.6. If you are using Python 3.5 the last version which will work is Qiskit Terra 0.15.2.

In the

`PulseBackendConfiguration`

in the`hamiltonian`

attributes the`vars`

field is now returned in a unit of Hz instead of the previously used GHz. This change was made to be consistent with the units used with the other attributes in the class.The previously deprecated support for passing in a dictionary as the first positional argument to

`DAGNode`

constructor has been removed. Using a dictonary for the first positional argument was deprecated in the 0.13.0 release. To create a`DAGNode`

object now you should directly pass the attributes as kwargs on the constructor.The keyword arguments for the circuit gate methods (for example:

`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit.cx`

)`q`

,`ctl*`

, and`tgt*`

, which were deprecated in the 0.12.0 release, have been removed. Instead, only`qubit`

,`control_qubit*`

and`target_qubit*`

can be used as named arguments for these methods.The previously deprecated module

`qiskit.extensions.standard`

has been removed. This module has been deprecated since the 0.14.0 release. The`qiskit.circuit.library`

can be used instead. Additionally, all the gate classes previously in`qiskit.extensions.standard`

are still importable from`qiskit.extensions`

.The previously deprecated gates in the module

`qiskit.extensions.quantum_initializer`

:`DiagGate`

, UCG`,`UCPauliRotGate`

,`UCRot`

,`UCRXGate`

,`UCX`

,`UCRYGate`

,`UCY`

,`UCRZGate`

,`UCZ`

have been removed. These were all deprecated in the 0.14.0 release and have alternatives available in the circuit library (`qiskit.circuit.library`

).The previously deprecated

`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit`

gate method`iden()`

has been removed. This was deprecated in the 0.13.0 release and`i()`

or`id()`

can be used instead.

##### Deprecation Notes¶

The use of a

`numpy.ndarray`

for a parameter in the`params`

kwarg for the constructor of the`Gate`

class and subclasses has been deprecated and will be removed in future releases. This was done as part of the refactoring of how`parms`

type checking is handled for the`Gate`

class. If you have a custom gate class which is a subclass of`Gate`

directly (or via a different parent in the hierarchy) that accepts an`ndarray`

parameter, you should define a custom`validate_parameter()`

method for your class that will return the allowed parameter type. For example:def validate_parameter(self, parameter): """Custom gate parameter has to be an ndarray.""" if isinstance(parameter, numpy.ndarray): return parameter else: raise CircuitError("invalid param type {0} in gate " "{1}".format(type(parameter), self.name))

The

`num_ancilla_qubits`

property of the`PiecewiseLinearPauliRotations`

and`PolynomialPauliRotations`

classes has been deprecated and will be removed in a future release. Instead the property`num_ancillas`

should be used instead. This was done to make it consistent with the`QuantumCircuit`

method`num_ancillas()`

.The

`qiskit.circuit.library.MSGate`

class has been deprecated, but will remain in place to allow loading of old jobs. It has been replaced with the`qiskit.circuit.library.GMS`

class which should be used instead.The

`MSBasisDecomposer`

transpiler pass has been deprecated and will be removed in a future release. The`qiskit.transpiler.passes.BasisTranslator`

pass can be used instead.The

`QuantumCircuit`

methods`u1`

,`u2`

and`u3`

are now deprecated. Instead the following replacements can be used.u1(theta) = p(theta) = u(0, 0, theta) u2(phi, lam) = u(pi/2, phi, lam) = p(pi/2 + phi) sx p(pi/2 lam) u3(theta, phi, lam) = u(theta, phi, lam) = p(phi + pi) sx p(theta + pi) sx p(lam)

The gate classes themselves,

`U1Gate`

,`U2Gate`

and`U3Gate`

remain, to allow loading of old jobs.

##### 버그 수정¶

The

`Result`

class’s methods`data()`

,`get_memory()`

,`get_counts()`

,`get_unitary()`

, and`get_statevector ` will now emit a warning when the ``experiment`()`

kwarg is specified for attempting to fetch results using either a`QuantumCircuit`

or`Schedule`

instance, when more than one entry matching the instance name is present in the`Result`

object. Note that only the first entry matching this name will be returned. Fixes #3207The

`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit`

method`append()`

can now be used to insert one parameterized gate instance into multiple circuits. This fixes a previous issue where inserting a single parameterized`Gate`

object into multiple circuits would cause failures when one circuit had a parameter assigned. Fixes #4697Previously the

`qiskit.execute.execute()`

function would incorrectly disallow both the`backend`

and`pass_manager`

kwargs to be specified at the same time. This has been fixed so that both`backend`

and`pass_manager`

can be used together on calls to`execute()`

. Fixes #5037The

`QuantumCircuit`

method`unitary()`

method has been fixed to accept a single integer for the`qarg`

argument (when adding a 1-qubit unitary). The allowed types for the`qargs`

argument are now`int`

,`Qubit`

, or a list of integers. Fixes #4944Previously, calling

`inverse()`

on a`BlueprintCircuit`

object could fail if its internal data property was not yet populated. This has been fixed so that the calling`inverse()`

will populate the internal data before generating the inverse of the circuit. Fixes #5140Fixed an issue when creating a

`qiskit.result.Counts`

object from an empty data dictionary. Now this will create an empty`Counts`

object. The`most_frequent()`

method is also updated to raise a more descriptive exception when the object is empty. Fixes #5017Fixes a bug where setting

`ctrl_state`

of a`UnitaryGate`

would be applied twice; once in the creation of the matrix for the controlled unitary and again when calling the`definition()`

method of the`qiskit.circuit.ControlledGate`

class. This would give the appearence that setting`ctrl_state`

had no effect.Previously the

`ControlledGate`

method`inverse()`

would not preserve the`ctrl_state`

parameter in some cases. This has been fixed so that calling`inverse()`

will preserve the value`ctrl_state`

in its output.Fixed a bug in the

`mpl`

output backend of the circuit drawer`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit.draw()`

and`qiskit.visualization.circuit_drawer()`

that would cause the drawer to fail if the`style`

kwarg was set to a string. The correct behavior would be to treat that string as a path to a JSON file containing the style sheet for the visualization. This has been fixed, and warnings are raised if the JSON file for the style sheet can’t be loaded.Fixed an error where loading a QASM file via

`from_qasm_file()`

or`from_qasm_str()`

would fail if a`u`

,`phase(p)`

,`sx`

, or`sxdg`

gate were present in the QASM file. Fixes #5156Fixed a bug that would potentially cause registers to be mismapped when unrolling/decomposing a gate defined with only one 2-qubit operation.

#### Aer 0.7.0¶

##### 도입¶

This 0.7.0 release includes numerous performance improvements and significant enhancements to the simulator interface, and drops support for Python 3.5. The main interface changes are configurable simulator backends, and constructing preconfigured simulators from IBMQ backends. Noise model an basis gate support has also been extended for most of the Qiskit circuit library standard gates, including new support for 1 and 2-qubit rotation gates. Performance improvements include adding SIMD support to the density matrix and unitary simulation methods, reducing the used memory and improving the performance of circuits using statevector and density matrix snapshots, and adding support for Kraus instructions to the gate fusion circuit optimization for greatly improving the performance of noisy statevector simulations.

##### 새로운 기능¶

Adds basis gate support for the

`qiskit.circuit.Delay`

instruction to the`StatevectorSimulator`

,`UnitarySimulator`

, and`QasmSimulator`

. Note that this gate is treated as an identity gate during simulation and the delay length parameter is ignored.Adds basis gate support for the single-qubit gate

`qiskit.circuit.library.UGate`

to the`StatevectorSimulator`

,`UnitarySimulator`

, and the`"statevector"`

,`"density_matrix"`

,`"matrix_product_state"`

, and`"extended_stabilizer"`

methods of the`QasmSimulator`

.Adds basis gate support for the phase gate

`qiskit.circuit.library.PhaseGate`

to the`StatevectorSimulator`

,`StatevectorSimulator`

,`UnitarySimulator`

, and the`"statevector"`

,`"density_matrix"`

,`"matrix_product_state"`

, and`"extended_stabilizer"`

methods of the`QasmSimulator`

.Adds basis gate support for the controlled-phase gate

`qiskit.circuit.library.CPhaseGate`

to the`StatevectorSimulator`

,`StatevectorSimulator`

,`UnitarySimulator`

, and the`"statevector"`

,`"density_matrix"`

, and`"matrix_product_state"`

methods of the`QasmSimulator`

.Adds support for the multi-controlled phase gate

`qiskit.circuit.library.MCPhaseGate`

to the`StatevectorSimulator`

,`UnitarySimulator`

, and the`"statevector"`

method of the`QasmSimulator`

.Adds support for the \(\sqrt(X)\) gate

`qiskit.circuit.library.SXGate`

to the class:~qiskit.providers.aer.StatevectorSimulator,`UnitarySimulator`

, and`QasmSimulator`

.Adds support for 1 and 2-qubit Qiskit circuit library rotation gates

`RXGate`

,`RYGate`

,`RZGate`

,`RGate`

,`RXXGate`

,`RYYGate`

,`RZZGate`

,`RZXGate`

to the`StatevectorSimulator`

,`UnitarySimulator`

, and the`"statevector"`

and`"density_matrix"`

methods of the`QasmSimulator`

.Adds support for multi-controlled rotation gates

`"mcr"`

,`"mcrx"`

,`"mcry"`

,`"mcrz"`

to the`StatevectorSimulator`

,`UnitarySimulator`

, and the`"statevector"`

method of the`QasmSimulator`

.Make simulator backends configurable. This allows setting persistant options such as simulation method and noise model for each simulator backend object.

The

`QasmSimulator`

and`PulseSimulator`

can also be configured from an`IBMQBackend`

backend object using the :meth:`~qiskit.providers.aer.QasmSimulator.from_backend method. For the`QasmSimulator`

this will configure the coupling map, basis gates, and basic device noise model based on the backend configuration and properties. For the`PulseSimulator`

the system model and defaults will be configured automatically from the backend configuration, properties and defaults.For example a noisy density matrix simulator backend can be constructed as

`QasmSimulator(method='density_matrix', noise_model=noise_model)`

, or an ideal matrix product state simulator as`QasmSimulator(method='matrix_product_state')`

.A benefit is that a

`PulseSimulator`

instance configured from a backend better serves as a drop-in replacement to the original backend, making it easier to swap in and out a simulator and real backend, e.g. when testing code on a simulator before using a real backend. For example, in the following code-block, the`PulseSimulator`

is instantiated from the`FakeArmonk()`

backend. All configuration and default data is copied into the simulator instance, and so when it is passed as an argument to`assemble`

, it behaves as if the original backend was supplied (e.g. defaults from`FakeArmonk`

will be present and used by`assemble`

).armonk_sim = qiskit.providers.aer.PulseSimulator.from_backend(FakeArmonk()) pulse_qobj = assemble(schedules, backend=armonk_sim) armonk_sim.run(pulse_qobj)

While the above example is small, the demonstrated 〈drop-in replacement〉 behavior should greatly improve the usability in more complicated work-flows, e.g. when calibration experiments are constructed using backend attributes.

Adds support for qobj global phase to the

`StatevectorSimulator`

,`UnitarySimulator`

, and statevector methods of the`QasmSimulator`

.Improves general noisy statevector simulation performance by adding a Kraus method to the gate fusion circuit optimization that allows applying gate fusion to noisy statevector simulations with general Kraus noise.

Use move semantics for statevector and density matrix snapshots for the 《statevector》 and 《density_matrix》 methods of the

`QasmSimulator`

if they are the final instruction in a circuit. This reduces the memory usage of the simulator improves the performance by avoiding copying a large array in the results.Adds support for general Kraus

`QauntumError`

gate errors in the`NoiseModel`

to the`"matrix_product_state"`

method of the`QasmSimulator`

.Adds support for density matrix snapshot instruction

`qiskit.providers.aer.extensions.SnapshotDensityMatrix`

to the`"matrix_product_state"`

method of the`QasmSimulator`

.Extends the SIMD vectorization of the statevector simulation method to the unitary matrix, superoperator matrix, and density matrix simulation methods. This gives roughtly a 2x performance increase general simulation using the

`UnitarySimulator`

, the`"density_matrix"`

method of the`QasmSimulator`

, gate fusion, and noise simulation.Adds a custom vector class to C++ code that has better integration with Pybind11. This haves the memory requirement of the

`StatevectorSimulator`

by avoiding an memory copy during Python binding of the final simulator state.

##### Upgrade Notes¶

AER now uses Lapack to perform some matrix related computations. It uses the Lapack library bundled with OpenBlas (already available in Linux and Macos typical OpenBlas dsitributions; Windows version distributed with AER) or with the accelerate framework in MacOS.

The deprecated support for running qiskit-aer with Python 3.5 has been removed. To use qiskit-aer >=0.7.0 you will now need at least Python 3.6. If you are using Python 3.5 the last version which will work is qiskit-aer 0.6.x.

Updates gate fusion default thresholds so that gate fusion will be applied to circuits with of more than 14 qubits for statevector simulations on the

`StatevectorSimulator`

and`QasmSimulator`

.For the

`"density_matrix"`

method of the`QasmSimulator`

and for the`UnitarySimulator`

gate fusion will be applied to circuits with more than 7 qubits.Custom qubit threshold values can be set using the

`fusion_threshold`

backend option ie`backend.set_options(fusion_threshold=10)`

Changes

`fusion_threshold`

backend option to apply fusion when the number of qubits is above the threshold, not equal or above the threshold, to match the behavior of the OpenMP qubit threshold parameter.

##### Deprecation Notes¶

`qiskit.providers.aer.noise.NoiseModel.set_x90_single_qubit_gates()`

has been deprecated as unrolling to custom basis gates has been added to the qiskit transpiler. The correct way to use an X90 based noise model is to define noise on the Sqrt(X)`"sx"`

or`"rx"`

gate and one of the single-qubit phase gates`"u1"`

,`"rx"`

, or`"p"`

in the noise model.The

`variance`

kwarg of Snapshot instructions has been deprecated. This function computed the sample variance in the snapshot due to noise model sampling, not the variance due to measurement statistics so was often being used incorrectly. If noise modeling variance is required single shot snapshots should be used so variance can be computed manually in post-processing.

##### 버그 수정¶

Fixes bug in the

`StatevectorSimulator`

that caused it to always run as CPU with double-precision without SIMD/AVX2 support even on systems with AVX2, or when single-precision or the GPU method was specified in the backend options.Fixes some for-loops in C++ code that were iterating over copies rather than references of container elements.

Fixes a bug where snapshot data was always copied from C++ to Python rather than moved where possible. This will halve memory usage and improve simulation time when using large statevector or density matrix snapshots.

Fix State::snapshot_pauli_expval to return correct Y expectation value in stabilizer simulator. Refer to #895 <https://github.com/Qiskit/qiskit-aer/issues/895> for more details.

The controller_execute wrappers have been adjusted to be functors (objects) rather than free functions. Among other things, this allows them to be used in multiprocessing.pool.map calls.

Add missing available memory checks for the

`StatevectorSimulator`

and`UnitarySimulator`

. This throws an exception if the memory required to simulate the number of qubits in a circuit exceeds the available memory of the system.

#### Ignis 0.5.0¶

##### 도입¶

This release includes a new module for expectation value measurement error mitigation, improved plotting functionality for quantum volume experiments, several bug fixes, and drops support for Python 3.5.

##### 새로운 기능¶

The

`qiskit.ignis.verification.randomized_benchmarking.randomized_benchmarking_seq()`

function allows an optional input of gate objects as interleaved_elem. In addition, the CNOT-Dihedral class`qiskit.ignis.verification.randomized_benchmarking.CNOTDihedral`

has a new method to_instruction, and the existing from_circuit method has an optional input of an Instruction (in addition to QuantumCircuit).The

`qiskit.ignis.verification.randomized_benchmarking.CNOTDihedral`

now contains the following new features. Initialization from various types of objects: CNOTDihedral, ScalarOp, QuantumCircuit, Instruction and Pauli. Converting to a matrix using to_matrix and to an operator using to_operator. Tensor product methods tensor and expand. Calculation of the adjoint, conjugate and transpose using conjugate, adjoint and transpose methods. Verify that an element is CNOTDihedral using is_cnotdihedral method. Decomposition method to_circuit of a CNOTDihedral element into a circuit was extended to allow any number of qubits, based on the function decompose_cnotdihedral_general.Adds expectation value measurement error mitigation to the mitigation module. This supports using

*complete*N-qubit assignment matrix, single-qubit*tensored*assignment matrix, or*continuous time Markov process (CTMP)*[1] measurement error mitigation when computing expectation values of diagonal operators from counts dictionaries. Expectation values are computed using the using the`qiskit.ignis.mitigation.expectation_value()`

function.Calibration circuits for calibrating a measurement error mitigator are generated using the

`qiskit.ignis.mitigation.expval_meas_mitigator_circuits()`

function, and the result fitted using the`qiskit.ignis.mitigation.ExpvalMeasMitigatorFitter`

class. The fitter returns a mitigator object can the be supplied as an argument to the`expectation_value()`

function to apply mitigation.- [1] S Bravyi, S Sheldon, A Kandala, DC Mckay, JM Gambetta,
*Mitigating measurement errors in multi-qubit experiments*, arXiv:2006.14044 [quant-ph].

Example:

The following example shows calibrating a 5-qubit expectation value measurement error mitigator using the

`'tensored'`

method.from qiskit import execute from qiskit.test.mock import FakeVigo import qiskit.ignis.mitigation as mit backend = FakeVigo() num_qubits = backend.configuration().num_qubits # Generate calibration circuits circuits, metadata = mit.expval_meas_mitigator_circuits( num_qubits, method='tensored') result = execute(circuits, backend, shots=8192).result() # Fit mitigator mitigator = mit.ExpvalMeasMitigatorFitter(result, metadata).fit() # Plot fitted N-qubit assignment matrix mitigator.plot_assignment_matrix()

<matplotlib.axes._subplots.AxesSubplot at 0x7f5cb030d970>

The following shows how to use the above mitigator to apply measurement error mitigation to expectation value computations

from qiskit import QuantumCircuit # Test Circuit with expectation value -1. qc = QuantumCircuit(num_qubits) qc.x(range(num_qubits)) qc.measure_all() # Execute shots = 8192 seed_simulator = 1999 result = execute(qc, backend, shots=8192, seed_simulator=1999).result() counts = result.get_counts(0) # Expectation value of Z^N without mitigation expval_nomit, error_nomit = mit.expectation_value(counts) print('Expval (no mitigation): {:.2f} \u00B1 {:.2f}'.format( expval_nomit, error_nomit)) # Expectation value of Z^N with mitigation expval_mit, error_mit = mit.expectation_value(counts, meas_mitigator=mitigator) print('Expval (with mitigation): {:.2f} \u00B1 {:.2f}'.format( expval_mit, error_mit))

Expval (no mitigation): -0.81 ± 0.01 Expval (with mitigation): -0.99 ± 0.01

Adds Numba as an optional dependency. Numba is used to significantly increase the performance of the

`qiskit.ignis.mitigation.CTMPExpvalMeasMitigator`

class used for expectation value measurement error mitigation with the CTMP method.Add two methods to

`qiskit.ignis.verification.quantum_volume.QVFitter`

.`qiskit.ignis.verification.quantum_volume.QVFitter.calc_z_value()`

to calculate z value in standard normal distribution using mean and standard deviation sigma. If sigma = 0, it raises a warning and assigns a small value (1e-10) for sigma so that the code still runs.`qiskit.ignis.verification.quantum_volume.QVFitter.calc_confidence_level()`

to calculate confidence level using z value.

Store confidence level even when hmean < 2/3 in

`qiskit.ignis.verification.quantum_volume.QVFitter.qv_success()`

.Add explanations for how to calculate statistics based on binomial distribution in

`qiskit.ignis.verification.quantum_volume.QVFitter.calc_statistics()`

.The

`qiskit.ignis.verification.QVFitter`

method`plot_qv_data()`

has been updated to return a`matplotlib.Figure`

object. Previously, it would not return anything. By returning a figure this makes it easier to integrate the visualizations into a larger`matplotlib`

workflow.The error bars in the figure produced by the

`qiskit.ignis.verification.QVFitter`

method`qiskit.ignis.verification.QVFitter.plot_qv_data()`

has been updated to represent two-sigma confidence intervals. Previously, the error bars represent one-sigma confidence intervals. The success criteria of Quantum Volume benchmarking requires heavy output probability > 2/3 with one-sided two-sigma confidence (~97.7%). Changing error bars to represent two-sigma confidence intervals allows easily identification of success in the figure.A new kwarg,

`figsize`

has been added to the`qiskit.ignis.verification.QVFitter`

method`qiskit.ignis.verification.QVFitter.plot_qv_data()`

. This kwarg takes in a tuple of the form`(x, y)`

where`x`

and`y`

are the dimension in inches to make the generated plot.The

`qiskit.ignis.verification.quantum_volume.QVFitter.plot_hop_accumulative()`

method has been added to plot heavy output probability (HOP) vs number of trials similar to Figure 2a of Quantum Volume 64 paper (arXiv:2008.08571). HOP of individual trials are plotted as scatters and cummulative HOP are plotted in red line. Two-sigma confidence intervals are plotted as shaded area and 2/3 success threshold is plotted as dashed line.The

`qiskit.ignis.verification.quantum_volume.QVFitter.plot_qv_trial()`

method has been added to plot individual trials, leveraging on the`qiskit.visualization.plot_histogram()`

method from Qiskit Terra. Bitstring counts are plotted as overlapping histograms for ideal (hollow) and experimental (filled) values. Experimental heavy output probability are shown on the legend. Median probability is plotted as red dashed line.

##### Upgrade Notes¶

The deprecated support for running qiskit-ignis with Python 3.5 has been removed. To use qiskit-ignis >=0.5.0 you will now need at least Python 3.6. If you are using Python 3.5 the last version which will work is qiskit-ignis 0.4.x.

##### 버그 수정¶

Fixing a bug in the class

`qiskit.ignis.verification.randomized_benchmarking.CNOTDihedral`

for elements with more than 5 quits.Fix the confidence level threshold for

`qiskit.ignis.verification.quantum_volume.QVFitter.qv_success()`

to 0.977 corresponding to z = 2 as defined by the QV paper Algorithm 1.Fix a bug at

`qiskit.ignis.verification.randomized_benchmarking.randomized_benchmarking_seq()`

which caused all the subsystems with the same size in the given rb_pattern to have the same gates when a 〈rand_seed〉 parameter was given to the function.

#### Aqua 0.8.0¶

##### 도입¶

This release introduces an interface for running the available methods for Bosonic problems. In particular we introduced a full interface for running vibronic structure calculations.

This release introduces an interface for excited states calculations. It is now easier for the user to create a general excited states calculation. This calculation is based on a Driver which provides the relevant information about the molecule, a Transformation which provides the information about the mapping of the problem into a qubit Hamiltonian, and finally a Solver. The Solver is the specific way which the excited states calculation is done (the algorithm). This structure follows the one of the ground state calculations. The results are modified to take lists of expectation values instead of a single one. The QEOM and NumpyEigensolver are adapted to the new structure. A factory is introduced to run a numpy eigensolver with a specific filter (to target states of specific symmetries).

VQE expectation computation with Aer qasm_simulator now defaults to a computation that has the expected shot noise behavior.

##### 새로운 기능¶

Introduced an option warm_start that should be used when tuning other options does not help. When this option is enabled, a relaxed problem (all variables are continuous) is solved first and the solution is used to initialize the state of the optimizer before it starts the iterative process in the solve method.

The amplitude estimation algorithms now use

`QuantumCircuit`

objects as inputs to specify the A- and Q operators. This change goes along with the introduction of the`GroverOperator`

in the circuit library, which allows an intuitive and fast construction of different Q operators. For example, a Bernoulli-experiment can now be constructed asimport numpy as np from qiskit import QuantumCircuit from qiskit.aqua.algorithms import AmplitudeEstimation probability = 0.5 angle = 2 * np.sqrt(np.arcsin(probability)) a_operator = QuantumCircuit(1) a_operator.ry(angle, 0) # construct directly q_operator = QuantumCircuit(1) q_operator.ry(2 * angle, 0) # construct via Grover operator from qiskit.circuit.library import GroverOperator oracle = QuantumCircuit(1) oracle.z(0) # good state = the qubit is in state |1> q_operator = GroverOperator(oracle, state_preparation=a_operator) # use default construction in QAE q_operator = None ae = AmplitudeEstimation(a_operator, q_operator)

Add the possibility to compute Conditional Value at Risk (CVaR) expectation values.

Given a diagonal observable H, often corresponding to the objective function of an optimization problem, we are often not as interested in minimizing the average energy of our observed measurements. In this context, we are satisfied if at least some of our measurements achieve low energy. (Note that this is emphatically not the case for chemistry problems).

To this end, one might consider using the best observed sample as a cost function during variational optimization. The issue here, is that this can result in a non-smooth optimization surface. To resolve this issue, we can smooth the optimization surface by using not just the best observed sample, but instead average over some fraction of best observed samples. This is exactly what the CVaR estimator accomplishes [1].

Let \(\alpha\) be a real number in \([0,1]\) which specifies the fraction of best observed samples which are used to compute the objective function. Observe that if \(\alpha = 1\), CVaR is equivalent to a standard expectation value. Similarly, if \(\alpha = 0\), then CVaR corresponds to using the best observed sample. Intermediate values of \(\alpha\) interpolate between these two objective functions.

The functionality to use CVaR is included into the operator flow through a new subclass of OperatorStateFn called CVaRMeasurement. This new StateFn object is instantied in the same way as an OperatorMeasurement with the exception that it also accepts an alpha parameter and that it automatically enforces the is_measurement attribute to be True. Observe that it is unclear what a CVaRStateFn would represent were it not a measurement.

Examples:

qc = QuantumCircuit(1) qc.h(0) op = CVaRMeasurement(Z, alpha=0.5) @ CircuitStateFn(primitive=qc, coeff=1.0) result = op.eval()

Similarly, an operator corresponding to a standard expectation value can be converted into a CVaR expectation using the CVaRExpectation converter.

Examples:

qc = QuantumCircuit(1) qc.h(0) op = ~StateFn(Z) @ CircuitStateFn(primitive=qc, coeff=1.0) cvar_expecation = CVaRExpectation(alpha=0.1).convert(op) result = cvar_expecation.eval()

See [1] for additional details regarding this technique and it’s empircal performance.

References:

- [1]: Barkoutsos, P. K., Nannicini, G., Robert, A., Tavernelli, I., and Woerner, S.,
《Improving Variational Quantum Optimization using CVaR》 arXiv:1907.04769

New interface

`Eigensolver`

for Eigensolver algorithms.An interface for excited states calculation has been added to the chemistry module. It is now easier for the user to create a general excited states calculation. This calculation is based on a

`Driver`

which provides the relevant information about the molecule, a`Transformation`

which provides the information about the mapping of the problem into a qubit Hamiltonian, and finally a Solver. The Solver is the specific way which the excited states calculation is done (the algorithm). This structure follows the one of the ground state calculations. The results are modified to take lists of expectation values instead of a single one. The`QEOM`

and`NumpyEigensolver`

are adapted to the new structure. A factory is introduced to run a numpy eigensolver with a specific filter (to target states of specific symmetries).In addition to the workflows for solving Fermionic problems, interfaces for calculating Bosonic ground and excited states have been added. In particular we introduced a full interface for running vibronic structure calculations.

The

`OrbitalOptimizationVQE`

has been added as new ground state solver in the chemistry module. This solver allows for the simulatneous optimization of the variational parameters and the orbitals of the molecule. The algorithm is introduced in Sokolov et al., The Journal of Chemical Physics 152 (12).A new algorithm has been added: the Born Openheimer Potential Energy surface for the calculation of potential energy surface along different degrees of freedom of the molecule. The algorithm is called

`BOPESSampler`

. It further provides functionalities of fitting the potential energy surface to an analytic function of predefined potentials.A feasibility check of the obtained solution has been added to all optimizers in the optimization stack. This has been implemented by adding two new methods to

`QuadraticProgram`

: *`get_feasibility_info(self, x: Union[List[float], np.ndarray])`

accepts an array and returns whether this solution is feasible and a list of violated variables(violated bounds) and a list of violated constraints. *`is_feasible(self, x: Union[List[float], np.ndarray])`

accepts an array and returns whether this solution is feasible or not.Add circuit-based versions of

`FixedIncomeExpectedValue`

,`EuropeanCallDelta`

,`GaussianConditionalIndependenceModel`

and`EuropeanCallExpectedValue`

to`qiskit.finance.applications`

.Gradient Framework.

`qiskit.operators.gradients`

Given an operator that represents either a quantum state resp. an expectation value, the gradient framework enables the evaluation of gradients, natural gradients, Hessians, as well as the Quantum Fisher Information.Suppose a parameterized quantum state |ψ(θ)〉 = V(θ)|ψ〉 with input state |ψ〉 and parametrized Ansatz V(θ), and an Operator O(ω).

Gradients: We want to compute \(d⟨ψ(θ)|O(ω)|ψ(θ)〉/ dω\) resp. \(d⟨ψ(θ)|O(ω)|ψ(θ)〉/ dθ\) resp. \(d⟨ψ(θ)|i〉⟨i|ψ(θ)〉/ dθ\).

The last case corresponds to the gradient w.r.t. the sampling probabilities of |ψ(θ). These gradients can be computed with different methods, i.e. a parameter shift, a linear combination of unitaries and a finite difference method.

Examples:

x = Parameter('x') ham = x * X a = Parameter('a') q = QuantumRegister(1) qc = QuantumCircuit(q) qc.h(q) qc.p(params[0], q[0]) op = ~StateFn(ham) @ CircuitStateFn(primitive=qc, coeff=1.) value_dict = {x: 0.1, a: np.pi / 4} ham_grad = Gradient(grad_method='param_shift').convert(operator=op, params=[x]) ham_grad.assign_parameters(value_dict).eval() state_grad = Gradient(grad_method='lin_comb').convert(operator=op, params=[a]) state_grad.assign_parameters(value_dict).eval() prob_grad = Gradient(grad_method='fin_diff').convert(operator=CircuitStateFn(primitive=qc, coeff=1.), params=[a]) prob_grad.assign_parameters(value_dict).eval()

Hessians: We want to compute \(d^2⟨ψ(θ)|O(ω)|ψ(θ)〉/ dω^2\) resp. \(d^2⟨ψ(θ)|O(ω)|ψ(θ)〉/ dθ^2\) resp. \(d^2⟨ψ(θ)|O(ω)|ψ(θ)〉/ dθdω\) resp. \(d^2⟨ψ(θ)|i〉⟨i|ψ(θ)〉/ dθ^2\).

The last case corresponds to the Hessian w.r.t. the sampling probabilities of |ψ(θ). Just as the first order gradients, the Hessians can be evaluated with different methods, i.e. a parameter shift, a linear combination of unitaries and a finite difference method. Given a tuple of parameters

`Hessian().convert(op, param_tuple)`

returns the value for the second order derivative. If a list of parameters is given`Hessian().convert(op, param_list)`

returns the full Hessian for all the given parameters according to the given parameter order.QFI: The Quantum Fisher Information QFI is a metric tensor which is representative for the representation capacity of a parameterized quantum state |ψ(θ)〉 = V(θ)|ψ〉 generated by an input state |ψ〉 and a parametrized Ansatz V(θ). The entries of the QFI for a pure state read \([QFI]kl= Re[〈∂kψ|∂lψ〉−〈∂kψ|ψ〉〈ψ|∂lψ〉] * 4\).

Just as for the previous derivative types, the QFI can be computed using different methods: a full representation based on a linear combination of unitaries implementation, a block-diagonal and a diagonal representation based on an overlap method.

Examples:

q = QuantumRegister(1) qc = QuantumCircuit(q) qc.h(q) qc.p(params[0], q[0]) op = ~StateFn(ham) @ CircuitStateFn(primitive=qc, coeff=1.) value_dict = {x: 0.1, a: np.pi / 4} qfi = QFI('lin_comb_full').convert(operator=CircuitStateFn(primitive=qc, coeff=1.), params=[a]) qfi.assign_parameters(value_dict).eval()

The combination of the QFI and the gradient lead to a special form of a gradient, namely

NaturalGradients: The natural gradient is a special gradient method which rescales a gradient w.r.t. a state parameter with the inverse of the corresponding Quantum Fisher Information (QFI) \(QFI^-1 d⟨ψ(θ)|O(ω)|ψ(θ)〉/ dθ\). Hereby, we can choose a gradient as well as a QFI method and a regularization method which is used together with a least square solver instead of exact invertion of the QFI:

Examples:

op = ~StateFn(ham) @ CircuitStateFn(primitive=qc, coeff=1.) nat_grad = NaturalGradient(grad_method='lin_comb, qfi_method='lin_comb_full', \ regularization='ridge').convert(operator=op, params=params)

The gradient framework is also compatible with the optimizers from qiskit.aqua.components.optimizers. The derivative classes come with a gradient_wrapper() function which returns the corresponding callable.

Introduces

`transformations`

for the fermionic and bosonic transformation of a problem instance. Transforms the fermionic operator to qubit operator. Respective class for the transformation is`fermionic_transformation`

Introduces in algorithms`ground_state_solvers`

for the calculation of ground state properties. The calculation can be done either using an`MinimumEigensolver`

or using`AdaptVQE`

Introduces`chemistry/results`

where the eigenstate_result and the electronic_structure_result are also used for the algorithms. Introduces Minimum Eigensolver factories`minimum_eigensolver_factories`

where chemistry specific minimum eigensolvers can be initialized Introduces orbital optimization vqe`oovqe`

as a ground state solver for chemistry applicationsNew Algorithm result classes:

`Grover`

method`_run()`

returns class`GroverResult`

.`AmplitudeEstimation`

method`_run()`

returns class`AmplitudeEstimationResult`

.`IterativeAmplitudeEstimation`

method`_run()`

returns class`IterativeAmplitudeEstimationResult`

.`MaximumLikelihoodAmplitudeEstimation`

method`_run()`

returns class`MaximumLikelihoodAmplitudeEstimationResult`

.All new result classes are backwards compatible with previous result dictionary.

New Linear Solver result classes:

`HHL`

method`_run()`

returns class`HHLResult`

.`NumPyLSsolver`

method`_run()`

returns class`NumPyLSsolverResult`

.All new result classes are backwards compatible with previous result dictionary.

`MinimumEigenOptimizationResult`

now exposes properties:`samples`

and`eigensolver_result`

. The latter is obtained from the underlying algorithm used by the optimizer and specific to the algorithm.`RecursiveMinimumEigenOptimizer`

now returns an instance of the result class`RecursiveMinimumEigenOptimizationResult`

which in turn may contains intermediate results obtained from the underlying algorithms. The dedicated result class exposes properties`replacements`

and`history`

that are specific to this optimizer. The depth of the history is managed by the`history`

parameter of the optimizer.`GroverOptimizer`

now returns an instance of`GroverOptimizationResult`

and this result class exposes properties`operation_counts`

,`n_input_qubits`

, and`n_output_qubits`

directly. These properties are not available in the`raw_results`

dictionary anymore.`SlsqpOptimizer`

now returns an instance of`SlsqpOptimizationResult`

and this result class exposes additional properties specific to the SLSQP implementation.Support passing

`QuantumCircuit`

objects as generator circuits into the`QuantumGenerator`

.Removes the restriction to real input vectors in CircuitStateFn.from_vector. The method calls extensions.Initialize. The latter explicitly supports (in API and documentation) complex input vectors. So this restriction seems unnecessary.

Simplified AbelianGrouper using a graph coloring algorithm of retworkx. It is faster than the numpy-based coloring algorithm.

Allow calling

`eval`

on state function objects with no argument, which returns the`VectorStateFn`

representation of the state function. This is consistent behavior with`OperatorBase.eval`

, which returns the`MatrixOp`

representation, if no argument is passed.Adds

`max_iterations`

to the`VQEAdapt`

class in order to allow limiting the maximum number of iterations performed by the algorithm.VQE expectation computation with Aer qasm_simulator now defaults to a computation that has the expected shot noise behavior. The special Aer snapshot based computation, that is much faster, with the ideal output similar to state vector simulator, may still be chosen but like before Aqua 0.7 it now no longer defaults to this but can be chosen.

##### Upgrade Notes¶

Extension of the previous Analytic Quantum Gradient Descent (AQGD) classical optimizer with the AQGD with Epochs. Now AQGD performs the gradient descent optimization with a momentum term, analytic gradients, and an added customized step length schedule for parametrized quantum gates. Gradients are computed 《analytically》 using the quantum circuit when evaluating the objective function.

The deprecated support for running qiskit-aqua with Python 3.5 has been removed. To use qiskit-aqua >=0.8.0 you will now need at least Python 3.6. If you are using Python 3.5 the last version which will work is qiskit-aqua 0.7.x.

Added retworkx as a new dependency.

##### Deprecation Notes¶

The

`i_objective`

argument of the amplitude estimation algorithms has been renamed to`objective_qubits`

.TransformationType

QubitMappingType

Deprecate the

`CircuitFactory`

and derived types. The`CircuitFactory`

has been introduced as temporary class when the`QuantumCircuit`

missed some features necessary for applications in Aqua. Now that the circuit has all required functionality, the circuit factory can be removed. The replacements are shown in the following table.Circuit factory class | Replacement ------------------------------------+----------------------------------------------- CircuitFactory | use QuantumCircuit | UncertaintyModel | - UnivariateDistribution | - MultivariateDistribution | - NormalDistribution | qiskit.circuit.library.NormalDistribution MultivariateNormalDistribution | qiskit.circuit.library.NormalDistribution LogNormalDistribution | qiskit.circuit.library.LogNormalDistribution MultivariateLogNormalDistribution | qiskit.circuit.library.LogNormalDistribution UniformDistribution | qiskit.circuit.library.UniformDistribution MultivariateUniformDistribution | qiskit.circuit.library.UniformDistribution UnivariateVariationalDistribution | use parameterized QuantumCircuit MultivariateVariationalDistribution | use parameterized QuantumCircuit | UncertaintyProblem | - UnivariateProblem | - MultivariateProblem | - UnivariatePiecewiseLinearObjective | qiskit.circuit.library.LinearAmplitudeFunction

The ising convert classes

`qiskit.optimization.converters.QuadraticProgramToIsing`

and`qiskit.optimization.converters.IsingToQuadraticProgram`

have been deprecated and will be removed in a future release. Instead the`qiskit.optimization.QuadraticProgram`

methods`to_ising()`

and`from_ising()`

should be used instead.Deprecate the

`WeightedSumOperator`

which has been ported to the circuit library as`WeightedAdder`

in`qiskit.circuit.library`

.`Core Hamiltonian`

class is deprecated in favor of the`FermionicTransformation`

`Chemistry Operator`

class is deprecated in favor of the`tranformations`

`minimum_eigen_solvers/vqe_adapt`

is also deprecated and moved as an implementation of the ground_state_solver interface`applications/molecular_ground_state_energy`

is deprecated in favor of`ground_state_solver`

`Optimizer.SupportLevel`

nested enum is replaced by`OptimizerSupportLevel`

and`Optimizer.SupportLevel`

was removed. Use, for example,`OptimizerSupportLevel.required`

instead of`Optimizer.SupportLevel.required`

.Deprecate the

`UnivariateVariationalDistribution`

and`MultivariateVariationalDistribution`

as input to the`QuantumGenerator`

. Instead, plain`QuantumCircuit`

objects can be used.Ignored fast and use_nx options of AbelianGrouper.group_subops to be removed in the future release.

GSLS optimizer class deprecated

`__init__`

parameter`max_iter`

in favor of`maxiter`

. SPSA optimizer class deprecated`__init__`

parameter`max_trials`

in favor of`maxiter`

. optimize_svm function deprecated`max_iters`

parameter in favor of`maxiter`

. ADMMParameters class deprecated`__init__`

parameter`max_iter`

in favor of`maxiter`

.

##### 버그 수정¶

The UCCSD excitation list, comprising single and double excitations, was not being generated correctly when an active space was explicitly provided to UCSSD via the active_(un)occupied parameters.

For the amplitude estimation algorithms, we define the number of oracle queries as number of times the Q operator/Grover operator is applied. This includes the number of shots. That factor has been included in MLAE and IQAE but was missing in the 〈standard〉 QAE.

Fix CircuitSampler.convert, so that the

`is_measurement`

property is propagated to converted StateFns.Fix double calculation of coefficients in :meth`~qiskit.aqua.operators.VectorStateFn.to_circuit_op`.

Calling PauliTrotterEvolution.convert on an operator including a term that is a scalar multiple of the identity gave an incorrect circuit, one that ignored the scalar coefficient. This fix includes the effect of the coefficient in the global_phase property of the circuit.

Make ListOp.num_qubits check that all ops in list have the same num_qubits Previously, the number of qubits in the first operator in the ListOp was returned. With this change, an additional check is made that all other operators also have the same number of qubits.

Make PauliOp.exp_i() generate the correct matrix with the following changes. 1) There was previously an error in the phase of a factor of 2. 2) The global phase was ignored when converting the circuit to a matrix. We now use qiskit.quantum_info.Operator, which is generally useful for converting a circuit to a unitary matrix, when possible.

Fixes the cyclicity detection as reported buggy in https://github.com/Qiskit/qiskit-aqua/issues/1184.

#### IBM Q Provider 0.11.0¶

##### Upgrade Notes¶

The deprecated support for running qiskit-ibmq-provider with Python 3.5 has been removed. To use qiskit-ibmq-provider >=0.11.0 you will now need at least Python 3.6. If you are using Python 3.5 the last version which will work is qiskit-ibmq-provider 0.10.x.

Prior to this release,

`websockets`

7.0 was used for Python 3.6. With this release,`websockets`

8.0 or above is required for all Python versions. The package requirements have been updated to reflect this.

### 키스킷 0.22.0¶

#### 테라 0.15.2¶

No change

#### Aer 0.6.1¶

No change

#### Ignis 0.4.0¶

No change

#### Aqua 0.7.5¶

No change

#### IBM Q 공급자 0.5.0¶

##### 새로운 기능¶

CQC randomness extractors can now be invoked asynchronously, using methods

`run_async_ext1()`

and`run_async_ext2()`

. Each of these methods returns a`CQCExtractorJob`

instance that allows you to check on the job status (using`status()`

) and wait for its result (using`block_until_ready()`

). The`qiskit.provider.ibmq.random.CQCExtractor.run()`

method remains synchronous.You can now use the new IBMQ experiment service to query, retrieve, and download experiment related data. Interface to this service is located in the new

`qiskit.providers.ibmq.experiment`

package. Note that this feature is still in beta, and not all accounts have access to it. It is also subject to heavy modification in both functionality and API without backward compatibility.Two Jupyter magic functions, the IQX dashboard and the backend widget, are updated to display backend reservations. If a backend has reservations scheduled in the next 24 hours, time to the next one and its duration are displayed (e.g.

`Reservation: in 6 hrs 30 min (60m)`

). If there is a reservation and the backend is active, the backend status is displayed as`active [R]`

.

##### Upgrade Notes¶

Starting from this release, the basis_gates returned by

`qiskit.providers.ibmq.IBMQBackend.configuration()`

may differ for each backend. You should update your program if it relies on the basis gates being`['id','u1','u2','u3','cx']`

. We recommend always using the`configuration()`

method to find backend configuration values instead of hard coding them.`qiskit-ibmq-provider`

release 0.10 requires`qiskit-terra`

release 0.15 or above. The package metadata has been updated to reflect the new dependency.

### Qiskit 0.21.0¶

#### 테라 0.15.2¶

No change

#### Aer 0.6.1¶

No change

#### Ignis 0.4.0¶

No change

#### Aqua 0.7.5¶

No change

#### IBM Q Provider 0.9.0¶

##### 새로운 기능¶

You can now access the IBMQ random number services, such as the CQC randomness extractor, using the new package

`qiskit.providers.ibmq.random`

. Note that this feature is still in beta, and not all accounts have access to it. It is also subject to heavy modification in both functionality and API without backward compatibility.

##### 버그 수정¶

Fixes an issue that may raise a

`ValueError`

if`retrieve_job()`

is used to retrieve a job submitted via the IBM Quantum Experience Composer.`IBMQJobManager`

has been updated so that if a time out happens while waiting for an old job to finish, the time out error doesn’t prevent a new job to be submitted. Fixes #737

### Qiskit 0.20.1¶

#### 테라 0.15.2¶

##### 버그 수정¶

When accessing the

`definition`

attribute of a parameterized`Gate`

instance, the generated`QuantumCircuit`

had been generated with an invalid`ParameterTable`

, such that reading from`QuantumCircuit.parameters`

or calling`QuantumCircuit.bind_parameters`

would incorrectly report the unbound parameters. This has been resolved.`SXGate().inverse()`

had previously returned an 〈sx_dg〉 gate with a correct`definition`

but incorrect`to_matrix`

. This has been updated such that`SXGate().inverse()`

returns an`SXdgGate()`

and vice versa.`Instruction.inverse()`

, when not overridden by a subclass, would in some cases return a`Gate`

instance with an incorrect`to_matrix`

method. The instances of incorrect`to_matrix`

methods have been removed.For

`C3XGate`

with a non-zero`angle`

, inverting the gate via`C3XGate.inverse()`

had previously generated an incorrect inverse gate. This has been corrected.The

`MCXGate`

modes have been updated to return a gate of the same mode when calling`.inverse()`

. This resolves an issue where in some cases, transpiling a circuit containing the inverse of an`MCXVChain`

gate would raise an error.Previously, when creating a multiply controlled phase gate via

`PhaseGate.control`

, an`MCU1Gate`

gate had been returned. This has been had corrected so that an`MCPhaseGate`

is returned.Previously, attempting to decompose a circuit containing an

`MCPhaseGate`

would raise an error due to an inconsistency in the definition of the`MCPhaseGate`

. This has been corrected.`QuantumCircuit.compose`

and`DAGCircuit.compose`

had, in some cases, incorrectly translated conditional gates if the input circuit contained more than one`ClassicalRegister`

. This has been resolved.Fixed an issue when creating a

`qiskit.result.Counts`

object from an empty data dictionary. Now this will create an empty`Counts`

object. The`most_frequent()`

method is also updated to raise a more descriptive exception when the object is empty. Fixes #5017Extending circuits with differing registers updated the

`qregs`

and`cregs`

properties accordingly, but not the`qubits`

and`clbits`

lists. As these are no longer generated from the registers but are cached lists, this lead to a discrepancy of registers and bits. This has been fixed and the`extend`

method explicitly updates the cached bit lists.Fix bugs of the concrete implementations of meth:~qiskit.circuit.ControlledGate.inverse method which do not preserve the

`ctrl_state`

parameter.A bug was fixed that caused long pulse schedules to throw a recursion error.

#### Aer 0.6.1¶

No change

#### Ignis 0.4.0¶

No change

#### Aqua 0.7.5¶

No change

#### IBM Q Provider 0.8.0¶

No change

### Qiskit 0.20.0¶

#### Terra 0.15.1¶

##### 도입¶

The 0.15.0 release includes several new features and bug fixes. Some highlights for this release are:

This release includes the introduction of arbitrary basis translation to the transpiler. This includes support for directly targeting a broader range of device basis sets, e.g. backends implementing RZ, RY, RZ, CZ or iSwap gates.

The `QuantumCircuit`

class now tracks global
phase. This means controlling a circuit which has global phase now
correctly adds a relative phase, and gate matrix definitions are now
exact rather than equal up to a global phase.

##### 새로운 기능¶

A new DAG class

`qiskit.dagcircuit.DAGDependency`

for representing the dependency form of circuit, In this DAG, the nodes are operations (gates, measure, barrier, etc…) and the edges corresponds to non-commutation between two operations.Four new functions are added to

`qiskit.converters`

for converting back and forth to`DAGDependency`

. These functions are:`circuit_to_dagdependency()`

to convert from a`QuantumCircuit`

object to a`DAGDependency`

object.`dagdependency_to_circuit()`

to convert from a`DAGDependency`

object to a`QuantumCircuit`

object.`dag_to_dagdependency()`

to convert from a`DAGCircuit`

object to a`DAGDependency`

object.`dagdependency_to_dag()`

to convert from a`DAGDependency`

object to a`DAGCircuit`

object.

For example:

from qiskit.converters.dagdependency_to_circuit import dagdependency_to_circuit from qiskit import QuantumRegister, ClassicalRegister, QuantumCircuit circuit_in = QuantumCircuit(2) circuit_in.h(qr[0]) circuit_in.h(qr[1]) dag_dependency = circuit_to_dagdependency(circuit_in) circuit_out = dagdepency_to_circuit(dag_dependency)

Two new transpiler passes have been added to

`qiskit.transpiler.passes`

The first,`UnrollCustomDefinitions`

, unrolls all instructions in the circuit according to their`definition`

property, stopping when reaching either the specified`basis_gates`

or a set of gates in the provided`EquivalenceLibrary`

. The second,`BasisTranslator`

, uses the set of translations in the provided`EquivalenceLibrary`

to re-write circuit instructions in a specified basis.A new

`translation_method`

keyword argument has been added to`transpile()`

to allow selection of the method to be used for translating circuits to the available device gates. For example,`transpile(circ, backend, translation_method='translator')`

. Valid choices are:`'unroller'`

: to use the`Unroller`

pass`'translator'`

: to use the`BasisTranslator`

pass.`'synthesis'`

: to use the`UnitarySynthesis`

pass.

The default value is

`'translator'`

.A new class for handling counts result data,

`qiskit.result.Counts`

, has been added. This class is a subclass of`dict`

and can be interacted with like any other dictionary. But, it includes helper methods and attributes for dealing with counts results from experiments and also handles post processing and formatting of binary strings at object initialization. A`Counts`

object can be created by passing a dictionary of counts with the keys being either integers, hexadecimal strings of the form`'0x4a'`

, binary strings of the form`'0b1101'`

, a bit string formatted across register and memory slots (ie`'00 10'`

), or a dit string. For example:from qiskit.result import Counts counts = Counts({"0x0': 1, '0x1', 3, '0x2': 1020})

A new method for constructing

`qiskit.dagcircuit.DAGCircuit`

objects has been added,`from_networkx()`

. This method takes in a networkx`MultiDiGraph`

object (in the format returned by`to_networkx()`

) and will return a new`DAGCircuit`

object. The intent behind this function is to enable transpiler pass authors to leverage networkx’s graph algorithm library if a function is missing from the retworkx API. Although, hopefully in such casses an issue will be opened with retworkx issue tracker (or even better a pull request submitted).A new kwarg for

`init_qubits`

has been added to`assemble()`

and`execute()`

. For backends that support this feature`init_qubits`

can be used to control whether the backend executing the circuits inserts any initialization sequences at the start of each shot. By default this is set to`True`

meaning that all qubits can assumed to be in the ground state at the start of each shot. However, when`init_qubits`

is set to`False`

qubits will be uninitialized at the start of each experiment and between shots. Note, that the backend running the circuits has to support this feature for this flag to have any effect.A new kwarg

`rep_delay`

has been added to`qiskit.compiler.assemble()`

,`qiskit.execute.execute()`

, and the constructor for`PulseQobjtConfig`

.qiskit This new kwarg is used to denotes the time between program executions. It must be chosen from the list of valid values set as the`rep_delays`

from a backend’s`PulseBackendConfiguration`

object which can be accessed as`backend.configuration().rep_delays`

).The

`rep_delay`

kwarg will only work on backends which allow for dynamic repetition time. This will also be indicated in the`PulseBackendConfiguration`

object for a backend as the`dynamic_reprate_enabled`

attribute. If`dynamic_reprate_enabled`

is`False`

then the`rep_time`

value specified for`qiskit.compiler.assemble()`

,`qiskit.execute.execute()`

, or the constructor for`PulseQobjtConfig`

will be used rather than`rep_delay`

.`rep_time`

only allows users to specify the duration of a program, rather than the delay between programs.The

`qobj_schema.json`

JSON Schema file in`qiskit.schemas`

has been updated to include the`rep_delay`

as an optional configuration property for pulse qobjs.The

`backend_configuration_schema.json`

JSON Schema file in mod:qiskit.schemas has been updated to include`rep_delay_range`

and`default_rep_delay`

as optional properties for a pulse backend configuration.A new attribute,

`global_phase`

, which is is used for tracking the global phase has been added to the`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit`

class. For example:import math from qiskit import QuantumCircuit circ = QuantumCircuit(1, global_phase=math.pi) circ.u1(0)

The global phase may also be changed or queried with

`circ.global_phase`

in the above example. In either case the setting is in radians. If the circuit is converted to an instruction or gate the global phase is represented by two single qubit rotations on the first qubit.This allows for other methods and functions which consume a

`QuantumCircuit`

object to take global phase into account. For example. with the`global_phase`

attribute the`to_matrix()`

method for a gate can now exactly correspond to its decompositions instead of just up to a global phase.The same attribute has also been added to the

`DAGCircuit`

class so that global phase can be tracked when converting between`QuantumCircuit`

and`DAGCircuit`

.Two new classes,

`AncillaRegister`

and`AncillaQubit`

have been added to the`qiskit.circuit`

module. These are subclasses of`QuantumRegister`

and`Qubit`

respectively and enable marking qubits being ancillas. This will allow these qubits to be re-used in larger circuits and algorithms.A new method,

`control()`

, has been added to the`QuantumCircuit`

. This method will return a controlled version of the`QuantumCircuit`

object, with both open and closed controls. This functionality had previously only been accessible via the`Gate`

class.A new method

`repeat()`

has been added to the`QuantumCircuit`

class. It returns a new circuit object containing a specified number of repetitions of the original circuit. For example:from qiskit.circuit import QuantumCircuit qc = QuantumCircuit(2) qc.h(0) qc.cx(0, 1) repeated_qc = qc.repeat(3) repeated_qc.decompose().draw(output='mpl')

The parameters are copied by reference, meaning that if you update the parameters in one instance of the circuit all repetitions will be updated.

A new method

`reverse_bits()`

has been added to the`QuantumCircuit`

class. This method will reverse the order of bits in a circuit (both quantum and classical bits). This can be used to switch a circuit from little-endian to big-endian and vice-versa.A new method,

`combine_into_edge_map()`

, was added to the`qiskit.transpiler.Layout`

class. This method enables converting converting two`Layout`

objects into a qubit map for composing two circuits.A new class,

`ConfigurableFakeBackend`

, has been added to the`qiskit.test.mock.utils`

module. This new class enables the creation of configurable mock backends for use in testing. For example:from qiskit.test.mock.utils import ConfigurableFakeBackend backend = ConfigurableFakeBackend("Tashkent", n_qubits=100, version="0.0.1", basis_gates=['u1'], qubit_t1=99., qubit_t2=146., qubit_frequency=5., qubit_readout_error=0.01, single_qubit_gates=['u1'])

will create a backend object with 100 qubits and all the other parameters specified in the constructor.

A new method

`draw()`

has been added to the`qiskit.circuit.EquivalenceLibrary`

class. This method can be used for drawing the contents of an equivalence library, which can be useful for debugging. For example:from numpy import pi from qiskit.circuit import EquivalenceLibrary from qiskit.circuit import QuantumCircuit from qiskit.circuit import QuantumRegister from qiskit.circuit import Parameter from qiskit.circuit.library import HGate from qiskit.circuit.library import U2Gate from qiskit.circuit.library import U3Gate my_equiv_library = EquivalenceLibrary() q = QuantumRegister(1, 'q') def_h = QuantumCircuit(q) def_h.append(U2Gate(0, pi), [q[0]], []) my_equiv_library.add_equivalence(HGate(), def_h) theta = Parameter('theta') phi = Parameter('phi') lam = Parameter('lam') def_u2 = QuantumCircuit(q) def_u2.append(U3Gate(pi / 2, phi, lam), [q[0]], []) my_equiv_library.add_equivalence(U2Gate(phi, lam), def_u2) my_equiv_library.draw()

A new Phase instruction,

`SetPhase`

, has been added to`qiskit.pulse`

. This instruction sets the phase of the subsequent pulses to the specified phase (in radians. For example:import numpy as np from qiskit.pulse import DriveChannel from qiskit.pulse import Schedule from qiskit.pulse import SetPhase sched = Schedule() sched += SetPhase(np.pi, DriveChannel(0))

In this example, the phase of the pulses applied to

`DriveChannel(0)`

after the`SetPhase`

instruction will be set to \(\pi\) radians.A new pulse instruction

`ShiftFrequency`

has been added to`qiskit.pulse.instructions`

. This instruction enables shifting the frequency of a channel from its set frequency. For example:from qiskit.pulse import DriveChannel from qiskit.pulse import Schedule from qiskit.pulse import ShiftFrequency sched = Schedule() sched += ShiftFrequency(-340e6, DriveChannel(0))

In this example all the pulses applied to

`DriveChannel(0)`

after the`ShiftFrequency`

command will have the envelope a frequency decremented by 340MHz.A new method

`conjugate()`

has been added to the`ParameterExpression`

class. This enables calling`numpy.conj()`

without raising an error. Since a`ParameterExpression`

object is real, it will return itself. This behaviour is analogous to Python floats/ints.A new class

`PhaseEstimation`

has been added to`qiskit.circuit.library`

. This circuit library class is the circuit used in the original formulation of the phase estimation algorithm in arXiv:quant-ph/9511026. Phase estimation is the task to to estimate the phase \(\phi\) of an eigenvalue \(e^{2\pi i\phi}\) of a unitary operator \(U\), provided with the corresponding eigenstate \(|psi\rangle\). That is\[U|\psi\rangle = e^{2\pi i\phi} |\psi\rangle\]This estimation (and thereby this circuit) is a central routine to several well-known algorithms, such as Shor’s algorithm or Quantum Amplitude Estimation.

The

`qiskit.visualization`

function`plot_state_qsphere()`

has a new kwarg`show_state_labels`

which is used to control whether each blob in the qsphere visualization is labeled. By default this kwarg is set to`True`

and shows the basis states next to each blob by default. This feature can be disabled, reverting to the previous behavior, by setting the`show_state_labels`

kwarg to`False`

.The

`qiskit.visualization`

function`plot_state_qsphere()`

has a new kwarg`show_state_phases`

which is set to`False`

by default. When set to`True`

it displays the phase of each basis state.The

`qiskit.visualization`

function`plot_state_qsphere()`

has a new kwarg`use_degrees`

which is set to`False`

by default. When set to`True`

it displays the phase of each basis state in degrees, along with the phase circle at the bottom right.A new class,

`QuadraticForm`

to the`qiskit.circuit.library`

module for implementing a a quadratic form on binary variables. The circuit library element implements the operation\[|x\rangle |0\rangle \mapsto |x\rangle |Q(x) \mod 2^m\rangle\]for the quadratic form \(Q\) and \(m\) output qubits. The result is in the \(m\) output qubits is encoded in two’s complement. If \(m\) is not specified, the circuit will choose the minimal number of qubits required to represent the result without applying a modulo operation. The quadratic form is specified using a matrix for the quadratic terms, a vector for the linear terms and a constant offset. If all terms are integers, the circuit implements the quadratic form exactly, otherwise it is only an approximation.

For example:

import numpy as np from qiskit.circuit.library import QuadraticForm A = np.array([[1, 2], [-1, 0]]) b = np.array([3, -3]) c = -2 m = 4 quad_form_circuit = QuadraticForm(m, A, b, c)

Add

`qiskit.quantum_info.Statevector.expectation_value()`

and`qiskit.quantum_info.DensityMatrix.expectation_value()`

methods for computing the expectation value of an`qiskit.quantum_info.Operator`

.For the

`seed`

kwarg in the constructor for`qiskit.circuit.library.QuantumVolume`

numpy random Generator objects can now be used. Previously, only integers were a valid input. This is useful when integrating`QuantumVolume`

as part of a larger function with its own random number generation, e.g. generating a sequence of`QuantumVolume`

circuits.The

`QuantumCircuit`

method`compose()`

has a new kwarg`front`

which can be used for prepending the other circuit before the origin circuit instead of appending. For example:from qiskit.circuit import QuantumCircuit circ1 = QuantumCircuit(2) circ2 = QuantumCircuit(2) circ2.h(0) circ1.cx(0, 1) circ1.compose(circ2, front=True).draw(output='mpl')

Two new passes,

`SabreLayout`

and`SabreSwap`

for layout and routing have been added to`qiskit.transpiler.passes`

. These new passes are based on the algorithm presented in Li et al., 《Tackling the Qubit Mapping Problem for NISQ-Era Quantum Devices》, ASPLOS 2019. They can also be selected when using the`transpile()`

function by setting the`layout_method`

kwarg to`'sabre'`

and/or the`routing_method`

to`'sabre'`

to use`SabreLayout`

and`SabreSwap`

respectively.Added the method

`replace()`

to the`qiskit.pulse.Schedule`

class which allows a pulse instruction to be replaced with another. For example:.. code-block:: python

from qiskit import pulse

d0 = pulse.DriveChannel(0)

sched = pulse.Schedule()

old = pulse.Play(pulse.Constant(100, 1.0), d0) new = pulse.Play(pulse.Constant(100, 0.1), d0)

sched += old

sched = sched.replace(old, new)

assert sched == pulse.Schedule(new)

Added new gate classes to

`qiskit.circuit.library`

for the \(\sqrt{X}\), its adjoint \(\sqrt{X}^\dagger\), and controlled \(\sqrt{X}\) gates as`SXGate`

,`SXdgGate`

, and`CSXGate`

. They can also be added to a`QuantumCircuit`

object using the`sx()`

,`sxdg()`

, and`csx()`

respectively.Add support for

`Reset`

instructions to`qiskit.quantum_info.Statevector.from_instruction()`

. Note that this involves RNG sampling in choosing the projection to the zero state in the case where the qubit is in a superposition state. The seed for sampling can be set using the`seed()`

method.The methods

`qiskit.circuit.ParameterExpression.subs()`

and`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit.assign_parameters()`

now accept`ParameterExpression`

as the target value to be substituted.For example,

from qiskit.circuit import QuantumCircuit, Parameter p = Parameter('p') source = QuantumCircuit(1) source.rz(p, 0) x = Parameter('x') source.assign_parameters({p: x*x})

┌──────────┐ q_0: ┤ Rz(x**2) ├ └──────────┘

The

`QuantumCircuit()`

method`to_gate()`

has a new kwarg`label`

which can be used to set a label for for the output`Gate`

object. For example:from qiskit.circuit import QuantumCircuit circuit_gate = QuantumCircuit(2) circuit_gate.h(0) circuit_gate.cx(0, 1) custom_gate = circuit_gate.to_gate(label='My Special Bell') new_circ = QuantumCircuit(2) new_circ.append(custom_gate, [0, 1], []) new_circ.draw(output='mpl')

Added the

`UGate`

,`CUGate`

,`PhaseGate`

, and`CPhaseGate`

with the corresponding`QuantumCircuit`

methods`u()`

,`cu()`

,`p()`

, and`cp()`

. The`UGate`

gate is the generic single qubit rotation gate with 3 Euler angles and the`CUGate`

gate its controlled version.`CUGate`

has 4 parameters to account for a possible global phase of the U gate. The`PhaseGate`

and`CPhaseGate`

gates are the general Phase gate at an arbitrary angle and it’s controlled version.A new kwarg,

`cregbundle`

has been added to the`qiskit.visualization.circuit_drawer()`

function and the`QuantumCircuit`

method`draw()`

. When set to`True`

the cregs will be bundled into a single line in circuit visualizations for the`text`

and`mpl`

drawers. The default value is`True`

. Addresses issue #4290.For example:

from qiskit import QuantumCircuit circuit = QuantumCircuit(2) circuit.measure_all() circuit.draw(output='mpl', cregbundle=True)

A new kwarg,

`initial_state`

has been added to the`qiskit.visualization.circuit_drawer()`

function and the`QuantumCircuit`

method`draw()`

. When set to`True`

the initial state will now be included in circuit visualizations for all drawers. Addresses issue #4293.For example:

from qiskit import QuantumCircuit circuit = QuantumCircuit(2) circuit.measure_all() circuit.draw(output='mpl', initial_state=True)

Labels will now be displayed when using the 〈mpl〉 drawer. There are 2 types of labels - gate labels and control labels. Gate labels will replace the gate name in the display. Control labels will display above or below the controls for a gate. Fixes issues #3766, #4580 Addresses issues #3766 and #4580.

For example:

from qiskit import QuantumCircuit from qiskit.circuit.library.standard_gates import YGate circuit = QuantumCircuit(2) circuit.append(YGate(label='A Y Gate').control(label='Y Control'), [0, 1]) circuit.draw(output='mpl')

##### Upgrade Notes¶

Implementations of the multi-controlled X Gate (

`MCXGrayCode`

,`MCXRecursive`

, and`MCXVChain`

) have had their`name`

properties changed to more accurately describe their implementation:`mcx_gray`

,`mcx_recursive`

, and`mcx_vchain`

respectively. Previously, these gates shared the name`mcx`

with`MCXGate`

, which caused these gates to be incorrectly transpiled and simulated.By default the preset passmanagers in

`qiskit.transpiler.preset_passmanagers`

are using`UnrollCustomDefinitions`

and`BasisTranslator`

to handle basis changing instead of the previous default`Unroller`

. This was done because the new passes are more flexible and allow targeting any basis set, however the output may differ. To use the previous default you can set the`translation_method`

kwarg on`transpile()`

to`'unroller'`

.The

`qiskit.converters.circuit_to_gate()`

and :func`qiskit.converters.circuit_to_instruction` converter functions had previously automatically included the generated gate or instruction in the active`SessionEquivalenceLibrary`

. These converters now accept an optional`equivalence_library`

keyword argument to specify if and where the converted instances should be registered. The default behavior has changed to not register the converted instance.The default value of the

`cregbundle`

kwarg for the`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit.draw()`

method and`qiskit.visualization.circuit_drawer()`

function has been changed to`True`

. This means that by default the classical bits in the circuit diagram will now be bundled by default, for example:from qiskit.circuit import QuantumCircuit circ = QuantumCircuit(4) circ.x(0) circ.h(1) circ.measure_all() circ.draw(output='mpl')

If you want to have your circuit drawing retain the previous behavior and show each classical bit in the diagram you can set the

`cregbundle`

kwarg to`False`

. For example:from qiskit.circuit import QuantumCircuit circ = QuantumCircuit(4) circ.x(0) circ.h(1) circ.measure_all() circ.draw(output='mpl', cregbundle=False)

`Schedule`

plotting with`qiskit.pulse.Schedule.draw()`

and`qiskit.visualization.pulse_drawer()`

will no longer display the event table by default. This can be reenabled by setting the`table`

kwarg to`True`

.The pass

`RemoveResetInZeroState`

was previously included in the preset pass manager`level_0_pass_manager()`

which was used with the`optimization_level=0`

for`transpile()`

and`execute()`

functions. However,`RemoveResetInZeroState`

is an optimization pass and should not have been included in optimization level 0 and was removed. If you need to run`transpile()`

with`RemoveResetInZeroState`

either use a custom pass manager or`optimization_level`

1, 2, or 3.The deprecated kwarg

`line_length`

for the`qiskit.visualization.circuit_drawer()`

function and`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit.draw()`

method has been removed. It had been deprecated since the 0.10.0 release. Instead you can use the`fold`

kwarg to adjust the width of the circuit diagram.The

`'mpl'`

output mode for the`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit.draw()`

method and`circuit_drawer()`

now requires the pylatexenc library to be installed. This was already an optional dependency for visualization, but was only required for the`'latex'`

output mode before. It is now also required for the matplotlib drawer because it is needed to handle correctly sizing gates with matplotlib’s mathtext labels for gates.The deprecated

`get_tokens`

methods for the`qiskit.qasm.Qasm`

and`qiskit.qasm.QasmParser`

has been removed. These methods have been deprecated since the 0.9.0 release. The`qiskit.qasm.Qasm.generate_tokens()`

and`qiskit.qasm.QasmParser.generate_tokens()`

methods should be used instead.The deprecated kwarg

`channels_to_plot`

for`qiskit.pulse.Schedule.draw()`

,`qiskit.pulse.Instruction.draw()`

,`qiskit.visualization.pulse.matplotlib.ScheduleDrawer.draw`

and`pulse_drawer()`

has been removed. The kwarg has been deprecated since the 0.11.0 release and was replaced by the`channels`

kwarg, which functions identically and should be used instead.The deprecated

`circuit_instruction_map`

attribute of the`qiskit.providers.models.PulseDefaults`

class has been removed. This attribute has been deprecated since the 0.12.0 release and was replaced by the`instruction_schedule_map`

attribute which can be used instead.The

`union`

method of`Schedule`

and`Instruction`

have been deprecated since the 0.12.0 release and have now been removed. Use`qiskit.pulse.Schedule.insert()`

and`qiskit.pulse.Instruction.meth()`

methods instead with the kwarg``time=0``.The deprecated

`scaling`

argument to the`draw`

method of`Schedule`

and`Instruction`

has been replaced with`scale`

since the 0.12.0 release and now has been removed. Use the`scale`

kwarg instead.The deprecated

`period`

argument to`qiskit.pulse.library`

functions have been replaced by`freq`

since the 0.13.0 release and now removed. Use the`freq`

kwarg instead of`period`

.The

`qiskit.pulse.commands`

module containing`Commands`

classes was deprecated in the 0.13.0 release and has now been removed. You will have to upgrade your Pulse code if you were still using commands. For example:Old

New

`Command(args)(channel)`

`Instruction(args, channel)`

Acquire(duration)(AcquireChannel(0))

Acquire(duration, AcquireChannel(0))

Delay(duration)(channel)

Delay(duration, channel)

FrameChange(angle)(DriveChannel(0))

# FrameChange was also renamed ShiftPhase(angle, DriveChannel(0))

Gaussian(...)(DriveChannel(0))

# Pulses need to be `Play`d Play(Gaussian(...), DriveChannel(0))

All classes and function in the

`qiskit.tool.qi`

module were deprecated in the 0.12.0 release and have now been removed. Instead use the`qiskit.quantum_info`

module and the new methods and classes that it has for working with quantum states and operators.The

`qiskit.quantum_info.basis_state`

and`qiskit.quantum_info.projector`

functions are deprecated as of Qiskit Terra 0.12.0 as are now removed. Use the`qiskit.quantum_info.QuantumState`

and its derivatives`qiskit.quantum_info.Statevector`

and`qiskit.quantum_info.DensityMatrix`

to work with states.The interactive plotting functions from

`qiskit.visualization`

,`iplot_bloch_multivector`

,`iplot_state_city`

,`iplot_state_qsphere`

,`iplot_state_hinton`

,`iplot_histogram`

,`iplot_state_paulivec`

now are just deprecated aliases for the matplotlib based equivalents and are no longer interactive. The hosted static JS code that these functions relied on has been removed and they no longer could work. A normal deprecation wasn’t possible because the site they depended on no longer exists.The validation components using marshmallow from

`qiskit.validation`

have been removed from terra. Since they are no longer used to build any objects in terra.The marshmallow schema classes in

`qiskit.result`

have been removed since they are no longer used by the`qiskit.result.Result`

class.The output of the

`to_dict()`

method for the`qiskit.result.Result`

class is no longer in a format for direct JSON serialization. Depending on the content contained in instances of these classes there may be types that the default JSON encoder doesn’t know how to handle, for example complex numbers or numpy arrays. If you’re JSON serializing the output of the`to_dict()`

method directly you should ensure that your JSON encoder can handle these types.The option to acquire multiple qubits at once was deprecated in the 0.12.0 release and is now removed. Specifically, the init args

`mem_slots`

and`reg_slots`

have been removed from`qiskit.pulse.instructions.Acquire`

, and`channel`

,`mem_slot`

and`reg_slot`

will raise an error if a list is provided as input.Support for the use of the

`USE_RETWORKX`

environment variable which was introduced in the 0.13.0 release to provide an optional fallback to the legacy networkx based`qiskit.dagcircuit.DAGCircuit`

implementation has been removed. This flag was only intended as provide a relief valve for any users that encountered a problem with the new implementation for one release during the transition to retworkx.The module within

`qiskit.pulse`

responsible for schedule->schedule transformations has been renamed from`reschedule.py`

to`transforms.py`

. The previous import path has been deprecated. To upgrade your code:from qiskit.pulse.rescheduler import <X>

should be replaced by:

from qiskit.pulse.transforms import <X>

In previous releases a

`PassManager`

did not allow`TransformationPass`

classes to modify the`PropertySet`

. This restriction has been lifted so a`TransformationPass`

class now has read and write access to both the`PropertySet`

and`DAGCircuit`

during`run()`

. This change was made to more efficiently facilitate`TransformationPass`

classes that have an internal state which may be necessary for later passes in the`PassManager`

. Without this change a second redundant`AnalysisPass`

would have been necessary to recreate the internal state, which could add significant overhead.

##### Deprecation Notes¶

The name of the first positional parameter for the

`qiskit.visualization`

functions`plot_state_hinton()`

,`plot_bloch_multivector()`

,`plot_state_city()`

,`plot_state_paulivec()`

, and`plot_state_qsphere()`

has been renamed from`rho`

to`state`

. Passing in the value by name to`rho`

is deprecated and will be removed in a future release. Instead you should either pass the argument positionally or use the new parameter name`state`

.The

`qiskit.pulse.pulse_lib`

module has been deprecated and will be removed in a future release. It has been renamed to`qiskit.pulse.library`

which should be used instead.The

`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit`

method`mirror()`

has been deprecated and will be removed in a future release. The method`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit.reverse_ops()`

should be used instead, since mirroring could be confused with swapping the output qubits of the circuit. The`reverse_ops()`

method only reverses the order of gates that are applied instead of mirroring.The

`qubits()`

and`clbits()`

methods of`qiskit.dagcircuit.DAGCircuit`

have been deprecated and will be removed in a future release. They have been replaced with properties of the same name,`qiskit.dagcircuit.DAGCircuit.qubits`

and`qiskit.dagcircuit.DAGCircuit.clbits`

, and are cached so accessing them is much faster.The

`get_sample_pulse`

method for`qiskit.pulse.library.ParametricPulse`

derived classes (for example`GaussianSquare`

) has been deprecated and will be removed in a future release. It has been replaced by the`get_waveform`

method (for example`get_waveform()`

) which should behave identically.The use of the optional

`condition`

argument on`qiskit.dagcircuit.DAGNode`

,`qiskit.dagcircuit.DAGCircuit.apply_operation_back()`

, and`qiskit.dagcircuit.DAGCircuit.apply_operation_front()`

has been deprecated and will be removed in a future release. Instead the`control`

set in`qiskit.circuit.Instruction`

instances being added to a`DAGCircuit`

should be used.The

`set_atol`

and`set_rtol`

class methods of the`qiskit.quantum_info.BaseOperator`

and`qiskit.quantum_info.QuantumState`

classes (and their subclasses such as`Operator`

and`qiskit.quantum_info.DensityMatrix`

) are deprecated and will be removed in a future release. Instead the value for the attributes`.atol`

and`.rtol`

should be set on the class instead. For example:from qiskit.quantum_info import ScalarOp ScalarOp.atol = 3e-5 op = ScalarOp(2)

The interactive plotting functions from

`qiskit.visualization`

,`iplot_bloch_multivector`

,`iplot_state_city`

,`iplot_state_qsphere`

,`iplot_state_hinton`

,`iplot_histogram`

,`iplot_state_paulivec`

have been deprecated and will be removed in a future release. The matplotlib based equivalent functions from`qiskit.visualization`

,`plot_bloch_multivector()`

,`plot_state_city()`

,`plot_state_qsphere()`

,`plot_state_hinton()`

,`plot_state_histogram()`

, and`plot_state_paulivec()`

should be used instead.The properties

`acquires`

,`mem_slots`

, and`reg_slots`

of the`qiskit.pulse.instructions.Acquire`

pulse instruction have been deprecated and will be removed in a future release. They are just duplicates of`channel`

,`mem_slot`

, and`reg_slot`

respectively now that previously deprecated support for using multiple qubits in a single`Acquire`

instruction has been removed.The

`SamplePulse`

class from`qiskit.pulse`

has been renamed to`Waveform`

.`SamplePulse`

is deprecated and will be removed in a future release.The style dictionary key

`cregbundle`

has been deprecated and will be removed in a future release. This has been replaced by the kwarg`cregbundle`

added to the`qiskit.visualization.circuit_drawer()`

function and the`QuantumCircuit`

method`draw()`

.

##### 버그 수정¶

The

`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit`

method`num_nonlocal_gates`

previously included multi-qubit`qiskit.circuit.Instruction`

objects (for example,`Barrier`

) in its count of non-local gates. This has been corrected so that only non-local`Gate`

objects are counted. Fixes #4500`ControlledGate`

instances with a set`ctrl_state`

were in some cases not being evaluated as equal, even if the compared gates were equivalent. This has been resolved so that Fixes #4573When accessing a bit from a

`qiskit.circuit.QuantumRegister`

or`qiskit.circuit.ClassicalRegister`

by index when using numpy integer types <https://numpy.org/doc/stable/user/basics.types.html>`__ would previously raise a`CircuitError`

exception. This has been resolved so numpy types can be used in addition to Python’s built-in`int`

type. Fixes #3929.A bug was fixed where only the first

`qiskit.pulse.configuration.Kernel`

or`qiskit.pulse.configuration.Discriminator`

for an`qiskit.pulse.Acquire`

was used when there were multiple Acquires at the same time in a`qiskit.pulse.Schedule`

.The SI unit use for constructing

`qiskit.pulse.SetFrequency`

objects is in Hz, but when a`PulseQobjInstruction`

object is created from a`SetFrequency`

instance it needs to be converted to GHz. This conversion was missing from previous releases and has been fixed.Previously it was possible to set the number of control qubits to zero in which case the the original, potentially non-controlled, operation would be returned. This could cause an

`AttributeError`

to be raised if the caller attempted to access an attribute which only`ControlledGate`

object have. This has been fixed by adding a getter and setter for`num_ctrl_qubits`

to validate that a valid value is being used. Fixes #4576Open controls were implemented by modifying a

`Gate`

objects`definition`

. However, when the gate already exists in the basis set, this definition was not used, which resulted in incorrect circuits being sent to a backend after transpilation. This has been fixed by modifying the`Unroller`

pass to use the definition if it encounters a controlled gate with open controls. Fixes #4437The

`insert_barriers`

keyword argument in the`ZZFeatureMap`

class didn’t actually insert barriers in between the Hadamard layers and evolution layers. This has been fixed so that barriers are now properly inserted.Fixed issue where some gates with three or more qubits would fail to compile in certain instances. Refer to #4577 <https://github.com/Qiskit/qiskit-terra/issues/4577 for more detail.

The matplotlib (

`'mpl'`

) output backend for the`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit`

method`draw()`

and the`qiskit.visualization.circuit_drawer()`

function was not properly scaling when the kwarg`scale`

was set. Fonts and line widths did not scale with the rest of the image. This has been fixed and all elements of the circuit diagram now scale properly. For example:from qiskit import QuantumCircuit circuit = QuantumCircuit(2) circuit.h(0) circuit.cx(0, 1) circuit.draw(output='mpl', scale=0.5)

Fixes #4179.

Fixes issue where initializing or evolving

`qiskit.quantum_info.Statevector`

and`qiskit.quantum_info.DensityMatrix`

classes by circuits by circuit containing`Barrier`

instructions would raise an exception. Fixes #4461Previously when a

`QuantumCircuit`

contained a`Gate`

with a classical condition the transpiler would sometimes fail when using`optimization_level=3`

on`transpile()`

or`execute()`

raising an`UnboundLocalError`

. This has been fixed by updating the`ConsolidateBlocks`

pass to account for the classical condition. Fixes #4672.In some situations long gate and register names would overflow, or leave excessive empty space around them when using the

`'mpl'`

output backend for the`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit.draw()`

method and`qiskit.visualization.circuit_drawer()`

function. This has been fixed by using correct text widths for a proportional font. Fixes #4611, #4605, #4545, #4497, #4449, and #3641.When using the

`style` kwarg on the :meth:`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit.draw` or :func:`qiskit.visualization.circuit_drawer` with the ``'mpl'`

output backend the dictionary key`'showindex'`

set to`True`

, the index numbers at the top of the column did not line up properly. This has been fixed.When using

`cregbunde=True`

with the`'mpl'`

output backend for the`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit.draw()`

method and`qiskit.visualization.circuit_drawer()`

function and measuring onto a second fold, the measure arrow would overwrite the creg count. The count was moved to the left to prevent this. Fixes #4148.When using the

`'mpl'`

output backend for the`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit.draw()`

method and`qiskit.visualization.circuit_drawer()`

function`CSwapGate`

gates and a controlled`RZZGate`

gates now display with their appropriate symbols instead of in a box.When using the

`'mpl'`

output backend for the`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit.draw()`

method and`qiskit.visualization.circuit_drawer()`

function controlled gates created using the`to_gate()`

method were not properly spaced and could overlap with other gates in the circuit diagram. This issue has been fixed.When using the

`'mpl'`

output backend for the`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit.draw()`

method and`qiskit.visualization.circuit_drawer()`

function gates with arrays as parameters, such as`HamiltonianGate`

, no longer display with excessive space around them. Fixes #4352.When using the

`'mpl'`

output backend for the`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit.draw()`

method and`qiskit.visualization.circuit_drawer()`

function generic gates created by directly instantiating`qiskit.circuit.Gate`

method now display the proper background color for the gate. Fixes #4496.When using the

`'mpl'`

output backend for the`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit.draw()`

method and`qiskit.visualization.circuit_drawer()`

function an`AttributeError`

that occurred when using`Isometry`

or`Initialize`

has been fixed. Fixes #4439.When using the

`'mpl'`

output backend for the`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit.draw()`

method and`qiskit.visualization.circuit_drawer()`

function some open-controlled gates did not properly display the open controls. This has been corrected so that open controls are properly displayed as open circles. Fixes #4248.When using the

`'mpl'`

output backend for the`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit.draw()`

method and`qiskit.visualization.circuit_drawer()`

function setting the`fold`

kwarg to -1 will now properly display the circuit without folding. Fixes #4506.Parametric pulses from

`qiskit.pulse.library.discrete`

now have zero ends of parametric pulses by default. The endpoints are defined such that for a function \(f(x)\) then \(f(-1) = f(duration + 1) = 0\). Fixes #4317

##### Other Notes¶

The

`qiskit.result.Result`

class which was previously constructed using the marshmallow library has been refactored to not depend on marshmallow anymore. This new implementation should be a seamless transition but some specific behavior that was previously inherited from marshmallow may not work. Please file issues for any incompatibilities found.

#### Aer 0.6.1¶

##### 도입¶

This 0.6.0 release includes numerous performance improvements for all simulators in the Aer provider and significant changes to the build system when building from source. The main changes are support for SIMD vectorization, approximation in the matrix product state method via bond-dimension truncation, more efficient Pauli expectation value computation, and greatly improved efficiency in Python conversion of C++ result objects. The build system was upgraded to use the Conan to manage common C++ dependencies when building from source.

##### 새로운 기능¶

Add density matrix snapshot support to 《statevector》 and 《statevector_gpu》 methods of the QasmSimulator.

Allow density matrix snapshots on specific qubits, not just all qubits. This computes the partial trace of the state over the remaining qubits.

Adds Pauli expectation value snapshot support to the 《density_matrix》 simulation method of the

`qiskit.providers.aer.QasmSimulator`

. Add snapshots to circuits using the`qiskit.providers.aer.extensions.SnapshotExpectationValue`

extension.Greatly improves performance of the Pauli expectation value snapshot algorithm for the 《statevector》, 《statevector_gpu, 《density_matrix》, and 《density_matrix_gpu》 simulation methods of the

`qiskit.providers.aer.QasmSimulator`

.Enable the gate-fusion circuit optimization from the

`qiskit.providers.aer.QasmSimulator`

in both the`qiskit.providers.aer.StatevectorSimulator`

and`qiskit.providers.aer.UnitarySimulator`

backends.Improve the performance of average snapshot data in simulator results. This effects probability, Pauli expectation value, and density matrix snapshots using the following extensions:

Add move constructor and improve memory usage of the C++ matrix class to minimize copies of matrices when moving output of simulators into results.

Improve performance of unitary simulator.

Add approximation to the 《matrix_product_state》 simulation method of the

`QasmSimulator`

to limit the bond-dimension of the MPS.There are two modes of approximation. Both discard the smallest Schmidt coefficients following the SVD algorithm. There are two parameters that control the degree of approximation:

`"matrix_product_state_max_bond_dimension"`

(int): Sets a limit on the number of Schmidt coefficients retained at the end of the svd algorithm. Coefficients beyond this limit will be discarded. (Default: None, i.e., no limit on the bond dimension).`"matrix_product_state_truncation_threshold"`

(double): Discard the smallest coefficients for which the sum of their squares is smaller than this threshold. (Default: 1e-16).Improve the performance of measure sampling when using the 《matrix_product_state》

`QasmSimulator`

simulation method.Add support for

`Delay`

,`Phase`

and`SetPhase`

pulse instructions to the`qiskit.providers.aer.PulseSimulator`

.Improve the performance of the

`qiskit.providers.aer.PulseSimulator`

by caching calls to RHS functionIntroduce alternate DE solving methods, specifiable through

`backend_options`

in the`qiskit.providers.aer.PulseSimulator`

.Improve performance of simulator result classes by using move semantics and removing unnecessary copies that were happening when combining results from separate experiments into the final result object.

Greatly improve performance of pybind11 conversion of simulator results by using move semantics where possible, and by moving vector and matrix results to Numpy arrays without copies.

Change the RNG engine for simulators from 32-bit Mersenne twister to 64-bit Mersenne twister engine.

Improves the performance of the 《statevector》 simulation method of the

`qiskit.providers.aer.QasmSimulator`

and`qiskit.providers.aer.StatevectorSimulator`

by using SIMD intrinsics on systems that support the AVX2 instruction set. AVX2 support is automatically detected and enabled at runtime.

##### Upgrade Notes¶

Changes the build system to use the Conan package manager. This tool will handle most of the dependencies needed by the C++ source code. Internet connection may be needed for the first build or when dependencies are added or updated, in order to download the required packages if they are not in your Conan local repository.

When building the standalone version of qiskit-aer you must install conan first with:

pip install conan

Changes how transpilation passes are handled in the C++ Controller classes so that each pass must be explicitly called. This allows for greater customization on when each pass should be called, and with what parameters. In particular this enables setting different parameters for the gate fusion optimization pass depending on the QasmController simulation method.

Add

`gate_length_units`

kwarg to`qiskit.providers.aer.noise.NoiseModel.from_device()`

for specifying custom`gate_lengths`

in the device noise model function to handle unit conversions for internal code.Add Controlled-Y (《cy》) gate to the Stabilizer simulator methods supported gateset.

For Aer’s backend the jsonschema validation of input qobj objects from terra is now opt-in instead of being enabled by default. If you want to enable jsonschema validation of qobj set the

`validate`

kwarg on the`qiskit.providers.aer.QasmSimualtor.run()`

method for the backend object to`True`

.Adds an OpSet object to the base simulator State class to allow easier validation of instructions, gates, and snapshots supported by simulators.

Refactor OpSet class. Moved OpSet to separate header file and add

`contains`

and`difference`

methods based on`std::set::contains`

and`std::algorithm::set_difference`

. These replace the removed invalid and validate instructions from OpSet, but with the order reversed. It returns a list of other ops not in current opset rather than opset instructions not in the other.Improves how measurement sampling optimization is checked. The expensive part of this operation is now done once during circuit construction where rather than multiple times during simulation for when checking memory requirements, simulation method, and final execution.

##### 버그 수정¶

Remove 《extended_stabilizer》 from the automatically selected simulation methods. This is needed as the extended stabilizer method is not exact and may give incorrect results for certain circuits unless the user knows how to optimize its configuration parameters.

The automatic method now only selects from 《stabilizer》, 《density_matrix》, and 《statevector》 methods. If a non-Clifford circuit that is too large for the statevector method is executed an exception will be raised suggesting you could try explicitly using the 《extended_stabilizer》 or 《matrix_product_state》 methods instead.

Disables gate fusion for the matrix product state simulation method as this was causing issues with incorrect results being returned in some cases.

Fixes a bug causing incorrect channel evaluation in the

`qiskit.providers.aer.PulseSimulator`

.Fixes several minor bugs for Hamiltonian parsing edge cases in the

`qiskit.providers.aer.pulse.system_models.hamiltonian_model.HamiltonianModel`

class.

#### Ignis 0.4.0¶

##### 도입¶

The main change made in this release is a refactor of the Randomized
Benchmarking code to integrate the updated Clifford class
`qiskit.quantum_info.Clifford`

from Terra and to improve the
CNOT-Dihedral class.

##### 새로운 기능¶

The

`qiskit.ignis.verification.randomized_benchmarking.randomized_benchmarking_seq()`

function was refactored to use the updated Clifford class`Clifford`

, to allow efficient Randomized Benchmarking (RB) on Clifford sequences with more than 2 qubits. In addition, the code of the CNOT-Dihedral class`qiskit.ignis.verification.randomized_benchmarking.CNOTDihedral`

was refactored to make it more efficient, by using numpy arrays, as well not using pre-generated pickle files storing all the 2-qubit group elements. The`qiskit.ignis.verification.randomized_benchmarking.randomized_benchmarking_seq()`

function has a new kwarg`rand_seed`

which can be used to specify a seed for the random number generator used to generate the RB circuits. This can be useful for having a reproducible circuit.The

`qiskit.ignis.verification.qv_circuits()`

function has a new kwarg`seed`

which can be used to specify a seed for the random number generator used to generate the Quantum Volume circuits. This can be useful for having a reproducible circuit.

##### Upgrade Notes¶

The

`qiskit.ignis.verification.randomized_benchmarking.randomized_benchmarking_seq()`

function is now using the updated Clifford class`Clifford`

and the updated CNOT-Dihedral class`qiskit.ignis.verification.randomized_benchmarking.CNOTDihedral`

to construct its output instead of using pre-generated group tables for the Clifford and CNOT-Dihedral group elements, which were stored in pickle files. This may result in subtle differences from the output from the previous version.요구사항 목록에 새로운 요구사항 scikit-learn 가 추가되었다. 이 종속성은 0.3.0릴리스에 추가된 것이지만 해당 릴리스에서 종속성이 제대로 표시되지 않았다. 이는

`qiskit.ignis.measurement.discriminator.iq_discriminators`

모듈이 import될때 ``ImportError``를 야기할 수 있다. 이제 종속성이 올바르게 리스트에 추가되었으므로 ``scikit-learn``을 사용할 때는 qiskit-ignis이 함께 설치될 것이다.The

`qiskit.ignis.verification.qv_circuits()`

function is now using the circuit library class`QuantumVolume`

to construct its output instead of building the circuit from scratch. This may result in subtle differences from the output from the previous version.Tomography fitters can now also get list of Result objects instead of a single Result as requested in issue #320.

##### Deprecation Notes¶

The kwarg

`interleaved_gates`

for the`qiskit.ignis.verification.randomized_benchmarking.randomized_benchmarking_seq()`

function has been deprecated and will be removed in a future release. It is superseded by`interleaved_elem`

. The helper functions`qiskit.ignis.verification.randomized_benchmarking.BasicUtils`

,`qiskit.ignis.verification.randomized_benchmarking.CliffordUtils`

and`qiskit.ignis.verification.randomized_benchmarking.DihedralUtils`

were deprecated. These classes are superseded by`qiskit.ignis.verification.randomized_benchmarking.RBgroup`

that handles the group operations needed for RB. The class`qiskit.ignis.verification.randomized_benchmarking.Clifford`

is superseded by`Clifford`

.The kwargs

`qr`

and`cr`

for the`qiskit.ignis.verification.qv_circuits()`

function have been deprecated and will be removed in a future release. These kwargs were documented as being used for specifying a`qiskit.circuit.QuantumRegister`

and`qiskit.circuit.ClassicalRegister`

to use in the generated Quantum Volume circuits instead of creating new ones. However, the parameters were never actually respected and a new Register would always be created regardless of whether they were set or not. This behavior is unchanged and these kwargs still do not have any effect, but are being deprecated prior to removal to avoid a breaking change for users who may have been setting either.Support for passing in subsets of qubits as a list in the

`qubit_lists`

parameter for the`qiskit.ignis.verification.qv_circuits()`

function has been deprecated and will removed in a future release. In the past this was used to specify a layout to run the circuit on a device. In other words if you had a 5 qubit device and wanted to run a 2 qubit QV circuit on qubits 1, 3, and 4 of that device. You would pass in`[1, 3, 4]`

as one of the lists in`qubit_lists`

, which would generate a 5 qubit virtual circuit and have qv applied to qubits 1, 3, and 4 in that virtual circuit. However, this functionality is not necessary and overlaps with the concept of`initial_layout`

in the transpiler and whether a circuit has been embedded with a layout set. Moving forward instead you should just run`transpile()`

or`execute()`

with initial layout set to do this. For example, running the above example would become:from qiskit import execute from qiskit.ignis.verification import qv_circuits initial_layout = [1, 3, 4] qv_circs, _ = qv_circuits([list(range3)]) execute(qv_circuits, initial_layout=initial_layout)

#### Aqua 0.7.5¶

##### 새로운 기능¶

Removed soft dependency on CPLEX in ADMMOptimizer. Now default optimizers used by ADMMOptimizer are MinimumEigenOptimizer for QUBO problems and SlsqpOptimizer as a continuous optimizer. You can still use CplexOptimizer as an optimizer for ADMMOptimizer, but it should be set explicitly.

New Yahoo! finance provider created.

Introduced

`QuadraticProgramConverter`

which is an abstract class for converters. Added`convert`

/`interpret`

methods for converters instead of`encode`

/`decode`

. Added`to_ising`

and`from_ising`

to`QuadraticProgram`

class. Moved all parameters from`convert`

to constructor except`name`

. Created setter/getter for converter parameters. Added`auto_define_penalty`

and`interpret`

for``LinearEqualityToPenalty``. Now error messages of converters are more informative.Added an SLSQP optimizer

`qiskit.optimization.algorithms.SlsqpOptimizer`

as a wrapper of the corresponding SciPy optimization method. This is a classical optimizer, does not depend on quantum algorithms and may be used as a replacement for`CobylaOptimizer`

.Cobyla optimizer has been modified to accommodate a multi start feature introduced in the SLSQP optimizer. By default, the optimizer does not run in the multi start mode.

The

`SummedOp`

does a mathematically more correct check for equality, where expressions such as`X + X == 2*X`

and`X + Z == Z + X`

evaluate to`True`

.

##### Deprecation Notes¶

GSLS optimizer class deprecated

`__init__`

parameter`max_iter`

in favor of`maxiter`

. SPSA optimizer class deprecated`__init__`

parameter`max_trials`

in favor of`maxiter`

. optimize_svm function deprecated`max_iters`

parameter in favor of`maxiter`

. ADMMParameters class deprecated`__init__`

parameter`max_iter`

in favor of`maxiter`

.The ising convert classes

`qiskit.optimization.converters.QuadraticProgramToIsing`

and`qiskit.optimization.converters.IsingToQuadraticProgram`

have been deprecated and will be removed in a future release. Instead the`qiskit.optimization.QuadraticProgram`

methods`to_ising()`

and`from_ising()`

should be used instead.The

`pprint_as_string`

method for`qiskit.optimization.QuadraticProgram`

has been deprecated and will be removed in a future release. Instead you should just run`.pprint_as_string()`

on the output from`to_docplex()`

The

`prettyprint`

method for`qiskit.optimization.QuadraticProgram`

has been deprecated and will be removed in a future release. Instead you should just run`.prettyprint()`

on the output from`to_docplex()`

##### 버그 수정¶

Changed in python version 3.8: On macOS, the spawn start method is now the default. The fork start method should be considered unsafe as it can lead to crashes in subprocesses. However P_BFGS doesn’t support spawn, so we revert to single process. Refer to #1109 <https://github.com/Qiskit/qiskit-aqua/issues/1109> for more details.

Binding parameters in the

`CircuitStateFn`

did not copy the value of`is_measurement`

and always set`is_measurement=False`

. This has been fixed.Previously, SummedOp.to_matrix_op built a list MatrixOp’s (with numpy matrices) and then summed them, returning a single MatrixOp. Some algorithms (for example vqe) require summing thousands of matrices, which exhausts memory when building the list of matrices. With this change, no list is constructed. Rather, each operand in the sum is converted to a matrix, added to an accumulator, and discarded.

Changing backends in VQE from statevector to qasm_simulator or real device was causing an error due to CircuitSampler incompatible reuse. VQE was changed to always create a new CircuitSampler and create a new expectation in case not entered by user. Refer to #1153 <https://github.com/Qiskit/qiskit-aqua/issues/1153> for more details.

Exchange and Wikipedia finance providers were fixed to correctly handle Quandl data. Refer to #775 <https://github.com/Qiskit/qiskit-aqua/issues/775> for more details. Fixes a divide by 0 error on finance providers mean vector and covariance matrix calculations. Refer to #781 <https://github.com/Qiskit/qiskit-aqua/issues/781> for more details.

The

`ListOp.combo_fn`

property has been lost in several transformations, such as converting to another operator type, traversing, reducing or multiplication. Now this attribute is propagated to the resulting operator.The evaluation of some operator expressions, such as of

`SummedOp``s and evaluations with the ``CircuitSampler`

did not treat coefficients correctly or ignored them completely. E.g. evaluating`~StateFn(0 * (I + Z)) @ Plus`

did not yield 0 or the normalization of`~StateFn(I) @ ((Plus + Minus) / sqrt(2))`

missed a factor of`sqrt(2)`

. This has been fixed.`OptimizationResult`

included some public setters and class variables were`Optional`

. This fix makes all class variables read-only so that mypy and pylint can check types more effectively.`MinimumEigenOptimizer.solve`

generated bitstrings in a result as`str`

. This fix changed the result into`List[float]`

as the other algorithms do. Some public classes related to optimization algorithms were missing in the documentation of`qiskit.optimization.algorithms`

. This fix added all such classes to the docstring. #1131 <https://github.com/Qiskit/qiskit-aqua/issues/1131> for more details.`OptimizationResult.__init__`

did not check whether the sizes of`x`

and`variables`

match or not (they should match). This fix added the check to raise an error if they do not match and fixes bugs detected by the check. This fix also adds missing unit tests related to`OptimizationResult.variable_names`

and`OptimizationResult.variables_dict`

in`test_converters`

. #1167 <https://github.com/Qiskit/qiskit-aqua/issues/1167> for more details.Fix parameter binding in the

`OperatorStateFn`

, which did not bind parameters of the underlying primitive but just the coefficients.`op.eval(other)`

, where`op`

is of type`OperatorBase`

, sometimes silently returns a nonsensical value when the number of qubits in`op`

and`other`

are not equal. This fix results in correct behavior, which is to throw an error rather than return a value, because the input in this case is invalid.The

`construct_circuit`

method of`VQE`

previously returned the expectation value to be evaluated as type`OperatorBase`

. This functionality has been moved into`construct_expectation`

and`construct_circuit`

returns a list of the circuits that are evaluated to compute the expectation value.

#### IBM Q Provider 0.8.0¶

##### 새로운 기능¶

`IBMQBackend`

now has a new`reservations()`

method that returns reservation information for the backend, with optional filtering. In addition, you can now use`provider.backends.my_reservations()`

to query for your own reservations.`qiskit.providers.ibmq.job.IBMQJob.result()`

raises an`IBMQJobFailureError`

exception if the job has failed. The exception message now contains the reason the job failed, if the entire job failed for a single reason.A new attribute

`client_version`

was added to`IBMQJob`

and`qiskit.result.Result`

object retrieved via`qiskit.providers.ibmq.job.IBMQJob.result()`

.`client_version`

is a dictionary with the key being the name and the value being the version of the client used to submit the job, such as Qiskit.The

`least_busy()`

function now takes a new, optional parameter`reservation_lookahead`

. If specified or defaulted to, a backend is considered unavailable if it has reservations in the next`n`

minutes, where`n`

is the value of`reservation_lookahead`

. For example, if the default value of 60 is used, then any backends that have reservations in the next 60 minutes are considered unavailable.`ManagedResults`

now has a new`combine_results()`

method that combines results from all managed jobs and returns a single`Result`

object. This`Result`

object can be used, for example, in`qiskit-ignis`

fitter methods.

##### Upgrade Notes¶

Timestamps in the following fields are now in local time instead of UTC:

Backend properties returned by

`qiskit.providers.ibmq.IBMQBackend.properties()`

.Backend properties returned by

`qiskit.providers.ibmq.job.IBMQJob.properties()`

.`estimated_start_time`

and`estimated_complete_time`

in`QueueInfo`

, returned by`qiskit.providers.ibmq.job.IBMQJob.queue_info()`

.`date`

in`Result`

, returned by`qiskit.providers.ibmq.job.IBMQJob.result()`

.

In addition, the

`datetime`

parameter for`qiskit.providers.ibmq.IBMQBackend.properties()`

is also expected to be in local time unless it has UTC timezone information.`websockets`

8.0 or above is now required if Python 3.7 or above is used.`websockets`

7.0 will continue to be used for Python 3.6 or below.On Windows, the event loop policy is set to

`WindowsSelectorEventLoopPolicy`

instead of using the default`WindowsProactorEventLoopPolicy`

. This fixes the issue that the`qiskit.providers.ibmq.job.IBMQJob.result()`

method could hang on Windows. Fixes #691

##### Deprecation Notes¶

Use of

`Qconfig.py`

to save IBM Quantum Experience credentials is deprecated and will be removed in the next release. You should use`qiskitrc`

(the default) instead.

##### 버그 수정¶

Fixes an issue wherein a call to

`qiskit.providers.ibmq.IBMQBackend.jobs()`

can hang if the number of jobs being returned is large. Fixes #674Fixes an issue which would raise a

`ValueError`

when building error maps in Jupyter for backends that are offline. Fixes #706`qiskit.providers.ibmq.IBMQBackend.jobs()`

will now return the correct list of`IBMQJob`

objects when the`status`

kwarg is set to`'RUNNING'`

.The package metadata has been updated to properly reflect the dependency on

`qiskit-terra`

>= 0.14.0. This dependency was implicitly added as part of the 0.7.0 release but was not reflected in the package requirements so it was previously possible to install`qiskit-ibmq-provider`

with a version of`qiskit-terra`

which was too old. Fixes #677

### Qiskit 0.19.6¶

#### Terra 0.14.2¶

변경 없음

#### Aer 0.5.2¶

변경 없음

#### Ignis 0.3.3¶

##### Upgrade Notes¶

요구사항 목록에 새로운 요구사항 scikit-learn 가 추가되었다. 이 종속성은 0.3.0릴리스에 추가된 것이지만 해당 릴리스에서 종속성이 제대로 표시되지 않았다. 이는

`qiskit.ignis.measurement.discriminator.iq_discriminators`

모듈이 import될때 ``ImportError``를 야기할 수 있다. 이제 종속성이 올바르게 리스트에 추가되었으므로 ``scikit-learn``을 사용할 때는 qiskit-ignis이 함께 설치될 것이다.

##### 버그 수정¶

Fixes an issue in qiskit-ignis 0.3.2 which would raise an

`ImportError`

when`qiskit.ignis.verification.tomography.fitters.process_fitter`

was imported without`cvxpy`

being installed.

#### Aqua 0.7.3¶

변경 없음

#### IBM Q 공급자 0.7.2¶

변경 없음

### Qiskit 0.19.5¶

#### Terra 0.14.2¶

변경 없음

#### Aer 0.5.2¶

변경 없음

#### Ignis 0.3.2¶

##### 버그 수정¶

The

`qiskit.ignis.verification.TomographyFitter.fit()`

method has improved detection logic for the default fitter. Previously, the`cvx`

fitter method was used whenever cvxpy was installed. However, it was possible to install cvxpy without an SDP solver that would work for the`cvx`

fitter method. This logic has been reworked so that the`cvx`

fitter method is only used if`cvxpy`

is installed and an SDP solver is present that can be used. Otherwise, the`lstsq`

fitter is used.Fixes an edge case in

`qiskit.ignis.mitigation.measurement.fitters.MeasurementFitter.apply()`

for input that has invalid or incorrect state labels that don’t match the calibration circuit. Previously, this would not error and just return an empty result. Instead now this case is correctly caught and a`QiskitError`

exception is raised when using incorrect labels.

#### Aqua 0.7.3¶

##### Upgrade Notes¶

The cvxpy dependency which is required for the svm classifier has been removed from the requirements list and made an optional dependency. This is because installing cvxpy is not seamless in every environment and often requires a compiler be installed to run. To use the svm classifier now you’ll need to install cvxpy by either running

`pip install cvxpy<1.1.0`

or to install it with aqua running`pip install qiskit-aqua[cvx]`

.

##### 버그 수정¶

The

`compose`

method of the`CircuitOp`

used`QuantumCircuit.combine`

which has been changed to use`QuantumCircuit.compose`

. Using combine leads to the problem that composing an operator with a`CircuitOp`

based on a named register does not chain the operators but stacks them. E.g. composing`Z ^ 2`

with a circuit based on a 2-qubit named register yielded a 4-qubit operator instead of a 2-qubit operator.The

`MatrixOp.to_instruction`

method previously returned an operator and not an instruction. This method has been updated to return an Instruction. Note that this only works if the operator primitive is unitary, otherwise an error is raised upon the construction of the instruction.The

`__hash__`

method of the`PauliOp`

class used the`id()`

method which prevents set comparisons to work as expected since they rely on hash tables and identical objects used to not have identical hashes. Now, the implementation uses a hash of the string representation inline with the implementation in the`Pauli`

class.

#### IBM Q 공급자 0.7.2¶

변경 없음

### Qiskit 0.19.4¶

#### Terra 0.14.2¶

##### Upgrade Notes¶

The

`circuit_to_gate`

and`circuit_to_instruction`

converters had previously automatically included the generated gate or instruction in the active`SessionEquivalenceLibrary`

. These converters now accept an optional`equivalence_library`

keyword argument to specify if and where the converted instances should be registered. The default behavior is not to register the converted instance.

##### 버그 수정¶

Implementations of the multi-controlled X Gate (

`MCXGrayCode`

,`MCXRecursive`

and`MCXVChain`

) have had their`name`

properties changed to more accurately describe their implementation (`mcx_gray`

,`mcx_recursive`

, and`mcx_vchain`

respectively.) Previously, these gates shared the name`mcx` with ``MCXGate`

, which caused these gates to be incorrectly transpiled and simulated.`ControlledGate`

instances with a set`ctrl_state`

were in some cases not being evaluated as equal, even if the compared gates were equivalent. This has been resolved.Fixed the SI unit conversion for

`qiskit.pulse.SetFrequency`

. The`SetFrequency`

instruction should be in Hz on the frontend and has to be converted to GHz when`SetFrequency`

is converted to`PulseQobjInstruction`

.Open controls were implemented by modifying a gate's definition. However, when the gate already exists in the basis, this definition is not used, which yields incorrect circuits sent to a backend. This modifies the unroller to output the definition if it encounters a controlled gate with open controls.

#### Aer 0.5.2¶

변경 없음

#### Ignis 0.3.0¶

변경 없음

#### Aqua 0.7.2¶

##### 도입¶

VQE expectation computation with Aer qasm_simulator now defaults to a computation that has the expected shot noise behavior.

##### Upgrade Notes¶

cvxpy is now in the requirements list as a dependency for qiskit-aqua. It is used for the quadratic program solver which is used as part of the

`qiskit.aqua.algorithms.QSVM`

. Previously`cvxopt`

was an optional dependency that needed to be installed to use this functionality. This is no longer required as cvxpy will be installed with qiskit-aqua.For state tomography run as part of

`qiskit.aqua.algorithms.HHL`

with a QASM backend the tomography fitter function`qiskit.ignis.verification.StateTomographyFitter.fit()`

now gets called explicitly with the method set to`lstsq`

to always use the least-squares fitting. Previously it would opportunistically try to use the`cvx`

fitter if`cvxpy`

were installed. But, the`cvx`

fitter depends on a specifically configured`cvxpy`

installation with an SDP solver installed as part of`cvxpy`

which is not always present in an environment with`cvxpy`

installed.The VQE expectation computation using qiskit-aer’s

`qiskit.providers.aer.extensions.SnapshotExpectationValue`

instruction is not enabled by default anymore. This was changed to be the default in 0.7.0 because it is significantly faster, but it led to unexpected ideal results without shot noise (see #1013 for more details). The default has now changed back to match user expectations. Using the faster expectation computation is now opt-in by setting the new`include_custom`

kwarg to`True`

on the`qiskit.aqua.algorithms.VQE`

constructor.

##### 새로운 기능¶

A new kwarg

`include_custom`

has been added to the constructor for`qiskit.aqua.algorithms.VQE`

and it’s subclasses (mainly`qiskit.aqua.algorithms.QAOA`

). When set to true and the`expectation`

kwarg is set to`None`

(the default) this will enable the use of VQE expectation computation with Aer’s`qasm_simulator`

`qiskit.providers.aer.extensions.SnapshotExpectationValue`

instruction. The special Aer snapshot based computation is much faster but with the ideal output similar to state vector simulator.

#### IBM Q 공급자 0.7.2¶

변경 없음

### Qiskit 0.19.3¶

#### Terra 0.14.1¶

변경 없음

#### Aer 0.5.2¶

##### 버그 수정¶

Fixed bug with statevector and unitary simulators running a number of (parallel) shots equal to the number of CPU threads instead of only running a single shot.

Fixes the 《diagonal》 qobj gate instructions being applied incorrectly in the density matrix Qasm Simulator method.

Fixes bug where conditional gates were not being applied correctly on the density matrix simulation method.

QasmSimulator methods에서 《density_matrix_gpu》 와 《density_matrix_thrust》에 사용되는 CZ 게이트와 Z 게이트의 버그를 수정하였다.

Fixes issue where memory requirements of simulation were not being checked on the QasmSimulator when using a non-automatic simulation method.

GPU 시뮬레이터에 영향을 주었던 메모리 누수를 수정하다.

#### Ignis 0.3.0¶

변경 없음

#### Aqua 0.7.1¶

변경 없음

#### IBM Q 공급자 0.7.2¶

##### 버그 수정¶

`qiskit.provider.ibmq.IBMQBackend.jobs()`

will now return the correct list of`IBMQJob`

objects when the`status`

kwarg is set to`'RUNNING'`

. Fixes #523The package metadata has been updated to properly reflect the dependency on

`qiskit-terra`

>= 0.14.0. This dependency was implicitly added as part of the 0.7.0 release but was not reflected in the package requirements so it was previously possible to install`qiskit-ibmq-provider`

with a version of`qiskit-terra`

which was too old. Fixes #677

### Qiskit 0.19.0¶

#### Terra 0.14.0¶

##### 도입¶

The 0.14.0 release includes several new features and bug fixes. The biggest
change for this release is the introduction of a quantum circuit library
in `qiskit.circuit.library`

, containing some circuit families of
interest.

The circuit library gives users access to a rich set of well-studied circuit families, instances of which can be used as benchmarks, as building blocks in building more complex circuits, or as a tool to explore quantum computational advantage over classical. The contents of this library will continue to grow and mature.

The initial release of the circuit library contains:

`standard_gates`

: these are fixed-width gates commonly used as primitive building blocks, consisting of 1, 2, and 3 qubit gates. For example the`XGate`

,`RZZGate`

and`CSWAPGate`

. The old location of these gates under`qiskit.extensions.standard`

is deprecated.`generalized_gates`

: these are families that can generalize to arbitrarily many qubits, for example a`Permutation`

or`GMS`

(Global Molmer-Sorensen gate).`boolean_logic`

: circuits that transform basis states according to simple Boolean logic functions, such as`ADD`

or`XOR`

.`arithmetic`

: a set of circuits for doing classical arithmetic such as`WeightedAdder`

and`IntegerComparator`

.`basis_changes`

: circuits such as the quantum Fourier transform,`QFT`

, that mathematically apply basis changes.`n_local`

: patterns to easily create large circuits with rotation and entanglement layers, such as`TwoLocal`

which uses single-qubit rotations and two-qubit entanglements.`data_preparation`

: circuits that take classical input data and encode it in a quantum state that is difficult to simulate, e.g.`PauliFeatureMap`

or`ZZFeatureMap`

.Other circuits that have proven interesting in the literature, such as

`QuantumVolume`

,`GraphState`

, or`IQP`

.

To allow easier use of these circuits as building blocks, we have introduced
a `compose()`

method of
`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit`

for composition of circuits either
with other circuits (by welding them at the ends and optionally permuting
wires) or with other simpler gates:

```
>>> lhs.compose(rhs, qubits=[3, 2], inplace=True)
```

```
┌───┐ ┌─────┐ ┌───┐
lqr_1_0: ───┤ H ├─── rqr_0: ──■──┤ Tdg ├ lqr_1_0: ───┤ H ├───────────────
├───┤ ┌─┴─┐└─────┘ ├───┤
lqr_1_1: ───┤ X ├─── rqr_1: ┤ X ├─────── lqr_1_1: ───┤ X ├───────────────
┌──┴───┴──┐ └───┘ ┌──┴───┴──┐┌───┐
lqr_1_2: ┤ U1(0.1) ├ + = lqr_1_2: ┤ U1(0.1) ├┤ X ├───────
└─────────┘ └─────────┘└─┬─┘┌─────┐
lqr_2_0: ─────■───── lqr_2_0: ─────■───────■──┤ Tdg ├
┌─┴─┐ ┌─┴─┐ └─────┘
lqr_2_1: ───┤ X ├─── lqr_2_1: ───┤ X ├───────────────
└───┘ └───┘
lcr_0: 0 ═══════════ lcr_0: 0 ═══════════════════════
lcr_1: 0 ═══════════ lcr_1: 0 ═══════════════════════
```

With this, Qiskit’s circuits no longer assume an implicit initial state of \(|0\rangle\), and will not be drawn with this initial state. The all-zero initial state is still assumed on a backend when a circuit is executed.

##### 새로운 기능¶

A new method,

`has_entry()`

, has been added to the`qiskit.circuit.EquivalenceLibrary`

class to quickly check if a given gate has any known decompositions in the library.A new class

`IQP`

, to construct an instantaneous quantum polynomial circuit, has been added to the circuit library module`qiskit.circuit.library`

.A new

`compose()`

method has been added to`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit`

. It allows composition of two quantum circuits without having to turn one into a gate or instruction. It also allows permutations of qubits/clbits at the point of composition, as well as optional inplace modification. It can also be used in place of`append()`

, as it allows composing instructions and operators onto the circuit as well.`qiskit.circuit.library.Diagonal`

circuits have been added to the circuit library. These circuits implement diagonal quantum operators (consisting of non-zero elements only on the diagonal). They are more efficiently simulated by the Aer simulator than dense matrices.Add

`from_label()`

method to the`qiskit.quantum_info.Clifford`

class for initializing as the tensor product of single-qubit I, X, Y, Z, H, or S gates.Schedule transformer

`qiskit.pulse.reschedule.compress_pulses()`

performs an optimization pass to reduce the usage of waveform memory in hardware by replacing multiple identical instances of a pulse in a pulse schedule with a single pulse. For example:from qiskit.pulse import reschedule schedules = [] for _ in range(2): schedule = Schedule() drive_channel = DriveChannel(0) schedule += Play(SamplePulse([0.0, 0.1]), drive_channel) schedule += Play(SamplePulse([0.0, 0.1]), drive_channel) schedules.append(schedule) compressed_schedules = reschedule.compress_pulses(schedules)

The

`qiskit.transpiler.Layout`

has a new method`reorder_bits()`

that is used to reorder a list of virtual qubits based on the layout object.Two new methods have been added to the

`qiskit.providers.models.PulseBackendConfiguration`

for interacting with channels.`get_channel_qubits()`

to get a list of all qubits operated by the given channel and`get_qubit_channel()`

to get a list of channels operating on the given qubit.

New

`qiskit.extensions.HamiltonianGate`

and`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit.hamiltonian()`

methods are introduced, representing Hamiltonian evolution of the circuit wavefunction by a user-specified Hermitian Operator and evolution time. The evolution time can be a`Parameter`

, allowing the creation of parameterized UCCSD or QAOA-style circuits which compile to`UnitaryGate`

objects if`time`

parameters are provided. The Unitary of a`HamiltonianGate`

with Hamiltonian Operator`H`

and time parameter`t`

is \(e^{-iHt}\).The circuit library module

`qiskit.circuit.library`

now provides a new boolean logic AND circuit,`qiskit.circuit.library.AND`

, and OR circuit,`qiskit.circuit.library.OR`

, which implement the respective operations on a variable number of provided qubits.New fake backends are added under

`qiskit.test.mock`

. These include mocked versions of`ibmq_armonk`

,`ibmq_essex`

,`ibmq_london`

,`ibmq_valencia`

,`ibmq_cambridge`

,`ibmq_paris`

,`ibmq_rome`

, and`ibmq_athens`

. As with other fake backends, these include snapshots of calibration data (i.e.`backend.defaults()`

) and error data (i.e.`backend.properties()`

) taken from the real system, and can be used for local testing, compilation and simulation.The

`last_update_date`

parameter for`BackendProperties`

can now also be passed in as a`datetime`

object. Previously only a string in ISO8601 format was accepted.Adds

`qiskit.quantum_info.Statevector.from_int()`

and`qiskit.quantum_info.DensityMatrix.from_int()`

methods that allow constructing a computational basis state for specified system dimensions.The methods on the

`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit`

class for adding gates (for example`h()`

) which were previously added dynamically at run time to the class definition have been refactored to be statically defined methods of the class. This means that static analyzer (such as IDEs) can now read these methods.

##### Upgrade Notes¶

A new package, python-dateutil, is now required and has been added to the requirements list. It is being used to parse datetime strings received from external providers in

`BackendProperties`

objects.The marshmallow schema classes in

`qiskit.providers.models`

have been removed since they are no longer used by the BackendObjects.The output of the

`to_dict()`

method for the classes in`qiskit.providers.models`

is no longer in a format for direct JSON serialization. Depending on the content contained in instances of these class there may be numpy arrays and/or complex numbers in the fields of the dict. If you’re JSON serializing the output of the to_dict methods you should ensure your JSON encoder can handle numpy arrays and complex numbers. This includes:`qiskit.providers.models.Nduv.to_dict()`

`qiskit.providers.models.Gate.to_dict()`

##### Deprecation Notes¶

The

`qiskit.dagcircuit.DAGCircuit.compose()`

method now takes a list of qubits/clbits that specify the positional order of bits to compose onto. The dictionary-based method of mapping using the`edge_map`

argument is deprecated and will be removed in a future release.The

`combine_into_edge_map()`

method for the`qiskit.transpiler.Layout`

class has been deprecated and will be removed in a future release. Instead, the new method`reorder_bits()`

should be used to reorder a list of virtual qubits according to the layout object.Passing a

`qiskit.pulse.ControlChannel`

object in via the parameter`channel`

for the`qiskit.providers.models.PulseBackendConfiguration`

method`control()`

has been deprecated and will be removed in a future release. The`ControlChannel`

objects are now generated from the backend configuration`channels`

attribute which has the information of all channels and the qubits they operate on. Now, the method`control()`

is expected to take the parameter`qubits`

of the form`(control_qubit, target_qubit)`

and type`list`

or`tuple`

, and returns a list of control channels.The

`AND`

and`OR`

methods of`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit`

are deprecated and will be removed in a future release. Instead you should use the circuit library boolean logic classes`qiskit.circuit.library.AND`

amd`qiskit.circuit.library.OR`

and then append those objects to your class. For example:from qiskit import QuantumCircuit from qiskit.circuit.library import AND qc = QuantumCircuit(2) qc.h(0) qc.cx(0, 1) qc_and = AND(2) qc.compose(qc_and, inplace=True)

The

`qiskit.extensions.standard`

module is deprecated and will be removed in a future release. The gate classes in that module have been moved to`qiskit.circuit.library.standard_gates`

.

##### 버그 수정¶

The

`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit`

methods`inverse()`

,`mirror()`

methods, as well as the`QuantumCircuit.data`

setter would generate an invalid circuit when used on a parameterized circuit instance. This has been resolved and these methods should now work with a parameterized circuit. Fixes #4235Previously when creating a controlled version of a standard qiskit gate if a

`ctrl_state`

was specified a generic`ControlledGate`

object would be returned whereas without it a standard qiskit controlled gate would be returned if it was defined. This PR allows standard qiskit controlled gates to understand`ctrl_state`

.Additionally, this PR fixes what might be considered a bug where setting the

`ctrl_state`

of an already controlled gate would assume the specified state applied to the full control width instead of the control qubits being added. For instance,:circ = QuantumCircuit(2) circ.h(0) circ.x(1) gate = circ.to_gate() cgate = gate.control(1) c3gate = cgate.control(2, ctrl_state=0)

would apply

`ctrl_state`

to all three control qubits instead of just the two control qubits being added.Fixed a bug in

`random_clifford()`

that stopped it from sampling the full Clifford group. Fixes #4271The

`qiskit.circuit.Instruction`

method`qiskit.circuit.Instruction.is_parameterized()`

method had previously returned`True`

for any`Instruction`

instance which had a`qiskit.circuit.Parameter`

in any element of its`params`

array, even if that`Parameter`

had been fully bound. This has been corrected so that`.is_parameterized`

will return`False`

when the instruction is fully bound.`qiskit.circuit.ParameterExpression.subs()`

had not correctly detected some cases where substituting parameters would result in a two distinct`Parameters`

objects in an expression with the same name. This has been corrected so a`CircuitError`

will be raised in these cases.Improve performance of

`qiskit.quantum_info.Statevector`

and`qiskit.quantum_info.DensityMatrix`

for low-qubit circuit simulations by optimizing the class`__init__`

methods. Fixes #4281The function

`qiskit.compiler.transpile()`

now correctly handles when the parameter`basis_gates`

is set to`None`

. This will allow any gate in the output tranpiled circuit, including gates added by the transpilation process. Note that using this parameter may have some unintended consequences during optimization. Some transpiler passes depend on having a`basis_gates`

set. For example,`qiskit.transpiler.passes.Optimize1qGates`

only optimizes the chains of u1, u2, and u3 gates and without`basis_gates`

it is unable to unroll gates that otherwise could be optimized:from qiskit import * q = QuantumRegister(1, name='q') circuit = QuantumCircuit(q) circuit.h(q[0]) circuit.u1(0.1, q[0]) circuit.u2(0.1, 0.2, q[0]) circuit.h(q[0]) circuit.u3(0.1, 0.2, 0.3, q[0]) result = transpile(circuit, basis_gates=None, optimization_level=3) result.draw()

┌───┐┌─────────────┐┌───┐┌─────────────────┐ q_0: ┤ H ├┤ U2(0.1,0.3) ├┤ H ├┤ U3(0.1,0.2,0.3) ├ └───┘└─────────────┘└───┘└─────────────────┘

Fixes #3017

##### Other Notes¶

The objects in

`qiskit.providers.models`

which were previously constructed using the marshmallow library have been refactored to not depend on marshmallow. This includes:`Nduv`

`Gate`

These should be drop-in replacements without any noticeable change but specifics inherited from marshmallow may not work. Please file issues for any incompatibilities found.

#### Aer 0.5.1¶

변경 없음

#### Ignis 0.3.0¶

변경 없음

#### Aqua 0.7.0¶

##### 도입¶

The Qiskit Aqua 0.7.0 release introduces a lot of new functionality along
with an improved integration with `qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit`

objects. The central contributions are the Qiskit’s optimization module,
a complete refactor on Operators, using circuits as native input for the
algorithms and removal of the declarative JSON API.

###### Optimization module¶

The `qiskit.optimization``

module now offers functionality for modeling
and solving quadratic programs. It provides various near-term quantum and
conventional algorithms, such as the `MinimumEigenOptimizer`

(covering e.g. `VQE`

or `QAOA`

) or `CplexOptimizer`

, as well as
a set of converters to translate between different
problem representations, such as `QuadraticProgramToQubo`

.
See the
changelog
for a list of the added features.

###### Operator flow¶

The operator logic provided in `qiskit.aqua.operators``

was completely
refactored and is now a full set of tools for constructing
physically-intuitive quantum computations. It contains state functions,
operators and measurements and internally relies on Terra’s Operator
objects. Computing expectation values and evolutions was heavily simplified
and objects like the `ExpectationFactory`

produce the suitable, most
efficient expectation algorithm based on the Operator input type.
See the changelog
for a overview of the added functionality.

###### Native circuits¶

Algorithms commonly use parameterized circuits as input, for example the
VQE, VQC or QSVM. Previously, these inputs had to be of type
`VariationalForm`

or `FeatureMap`

which were wrapping the circuit
object. Now circuits are natively supported in these algorithms, which
means any individually constructed `QuantumCircuit`

can be passed to
these algorithms. In combination with the release of the circuit library
which offers a wide collection of circuit families, it is now easy to
construct elaborate circuits as algorithm input.

###### Declarative JSON API¶

The ability of running algorithms using dictionaries as parameters as well as using the Aqua interfaces GUI has been removed.

#### IBM Q Provider 0.7.0¶

##### 새로운 기능¶

A new exception,

`qiskit.providers.ibmq.IBMQBackendJobLimitError`

, is now raised if a job could not be submitted because the limit on active jobs has been reached.`qiskit.providers.ibmq.job.IBMQJob`

and`qiskit.providers.ibmq.managed.ManagedJobSet`

each has two new methods`update_name`

and`update_tags`

. They are used to change the name and tags of a job or a job set, respectively.`qiskit.providers.ibmq.IBMQFactory.save_account()`

and`qiskit.providers.ibmq.IBMQFactory.enable_account()`

now accept optional parameters`hub`

,`group`

, and`project`

, which allow specifying a default provider to save to disk or use, respectively.

##### Upgrade Notes¶

The

`qiskit.providers.ibmq.job.IBMQJob`

methods`creation_date`

and`time_per_step`

now return date time information as a`datetime`

object in local time instead of UTC. Similarly, the parameters`start_datetime`

and`end_datetime`

, of`qiskit.providers.ibmq.IBMQBackendService.jobs()`

and`qiskit.providers.ibmq.IBMQBackend.jobs()`

can now be specified in local time.The

`qiskit.providers.ibmq.job.QueueInfo.format()`

method now uses a custom`datetime`

to string formatter, and the package arrow is no longer required and has been removed from the requirements list.

##### Deprecation Notes¶

The

`from_dict()`

and`to_dict()`

methods of`qiskit.providers.ibmq.job.IBMQJob`

are deprecated and will be removed in the next release.

##### 버그 수정¶

Fixed an issue where

`nest_asyncio.apply()`

may raise an exception if there is no asyncio loop due to threading.

### Qiskit 0.18.3¶

#### Terra 0.13.0¶

변경 없음

#### Aer 0.5.1¶

##### Upgrade Notes¶

Changes how transpilation passes are handled in the C++ Controller classes so that each pass must be explicitly called. This allows for greater customization on when each pass should be called, and with what parameters. In particular this enables setting different parameters for the gate fusion optimization pass depending on the QasmController simulation method.

Add

`gate_length_units`

kwarg to`qiskit.providers.aer.noise.NoiseModel.from_device()`

for specifying custom`gate_lengths`

in the device noise model function to handle unit conversions for internal code.Add Controlled-Y (《cy》) gate to the Stabilizer simulator methods supported gateset.

For Aer’s backend the jsonschema validation of input qobj objects from terra is now opt-in instead of being enabled by default. If you want to enable jsonschema validation of qobj set the

`validate`

kwarg on the`qiskit.providers.aer.QasmSimualtor.run()`

method for the backend object to`True`

.

##### 버그 수정¶

Remove 《extended_stabilizer》 from the automatically selected simulation methods. This is needed as the extended stabilizer method is not exact and may give incorrect results for certain circuits unless the user knows how to optimize its configuration parameters.

The automatic method now only selects from 《stabilizer》, 《density_matrix》, and 《statevector》 methods. If a non-Clifford circuit that is too large for the statevector method is executed an exception will be raised suggesting you could try explicitly using the 《extended_stabilizer》 or 《matrix_product_state》 methods instead.

Fixes Controller classes so that the ReduceBarrier transpilation pass is applied first. This prevents barrier instructions from preventing truncation of unused qubits if the only instruction defined on them was a barrier.

Disables gate fusion for the matrix product state simulation method as this was causing issues with incorrect results being returned in some cases.

Fix error in gate time unit conversion for device noise model with thermal relaxation errors and gate errors. The error probability the depolarizing error was being calculated with gate time in microseconds, while for thermal relaxation it was being calculated in nanoseconds. This resulted in no depolarizing error being applied as the incorrect units would make the device seem to be coherence limited.

Fix bug in incorrect composition of QuantumErrors when the qubits of composed instructions differ.

Fix issue where the 《diagonal》 gate is checked to be unitary with too high a tolerance. This was causing diagonals generated from Numpy functions to often fail the test.

Fix remove-barrier circuit optimization pass to be applied before qubit trucation. This fixes an issue where barriers inserted by the Terra transpiler across otherwise inactive qubits would prevent them from being truncated.

#### Ignis 0.3.0¶

변경 없음

#### Aqua 0.6.6¶

변경 없음

#### IBM Q Provider 0.6.1¶

변경 없음

### Qiskit 0.18.0¶

#### Terra 0.13.0¶

##### 도입¶

The 0.13.0 release includes many big changes. Some highlights for this release are:

For the transpiler we have switched the graph library used to build the
`qiskit.dagcircuit.DAGCircuit`

class which is the underlying data
structure behind all operations to be based on
retworkx for greatly improved
performance. Circuit transpilation speed in the 0.13.0 release should
be significanlty faster than in previous releases.

There has been a significant simplification to the style in which Pulse
instructions are built. Now, `Command`

s are deprecated and a unified
set of `Instruction`

s are supported.

The `qiskit.quantum_info`

module includes several new functions
for generating random operators (such as Cliffords and quantum channels)
and for computing the diamond norm of quantum channels; upgrades to the
`Statevector`

and
`DensityMatrix`

classes to support
computing measurement probabilities and sampling measurements; and several
new classes are based on the symplectic representation
of Pauli matrices. These new classes include Clifford operators
(`Clifford`

), N-qubit matrices that are
sparse in the Pauli basis (`SparsePauliOp`

),
lists of Pauli’s (`PauliTable`

),
and lists of stabilizers (`StabilizerTable`

).

This release also has vastly improved documentation across Qiskit,
including improved documentation for the `qiskit.circuit`

,
`qiskit.pulse`

and `qiskit.quantum_info`

modules.

Additionally, the naming of gate objects and
`QuantumCircuit`

methods have been updated to be
more consistent. This has resulted in several classes and methods being
deprecated as things move to a more consistent naming scheme.

For full details on all the changes made in this release see the detailed release notes below.

##### 새로운 기능¶

Added a new circuit library module

`qiskit.circuit.library`

. This will be a place for constructors of commonly used circuits that can be used as building blocks for larger circuits or applications.The

`qiskit.providers.BaseJob`

class has four new methods:These methods are used to check wheter a job is in a given job status.

Add ability to specify control conditioned on a qubit being in the ground state. The state of the control qubits is represented by an integer. For example:

from qiskit import QuantumCircuit from qiskit.extensions.standard import XGate qc = QuantumCircuit(4) cgate = XGate().control(3, ctrl_state=6) qc.append(cgate, [0, 1, 2, 3])

Creates a four qubit gate where the fourth qubit gets flipped if the first qubit is in the ground state and the second and third qubits are in the excited state. If

`ctrl_state`

is`None`

, the default, control is conditioned on all control qubits being excited.A new jupyter widget,

`%circuit_library_info`

has been added to`qiskit.tools.jupyter`

. This widget is used for visualizing details about circuits built from the circuit library. For examplefrom qiskit.circuit.library import XOR import qiskit.tools.jupyter circuit = XOR(5, seed=42) %circuit_library_info circuit

A new kwarg option,

`formatted`

, has been added to`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit.qasm()`

. When set to`True`

the method will print a syntax highlighted version (using pygments) to stdout and return`None`

(which differs from the normal behavior of returning the QASM code as a string).A new kwarg option,

`filename`

, has been added to`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit.qasm()`

. When set to a path the method will write the QASM code to that file. It will then continue to output as normal.A new instruction

`SetFrequency`

which allows users to change the frequency of the`PulseChannel`

. This is done in the following way:from qiskit.pulse import Schedule from qiskit.pulse import SetFrequency sched = pulse.Schedule() sched += SetFrequency(5.5e9, DriveChannel(0))

In this example, the frequency of all pulses before the

`SetFrequency`

command will be the default frequency and all pulses applied to drive channel zero after the`SetFrequency`

command will be at 5.5 GHz. Users of`SetFrequency`

should keep in mind any hardware limitations.A new method,

`assign_parameters()`

has been added to the`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit`

class. This method accepts a parameter dictionary with both floats and Parameters objects in a single dictionary. In other words this new method allows you to bind floats, Parameters or both in a single dictionary.Also, by using the

`inplace`

kwarg it can be specified you can optionally modify the original circuit in place. By default this is set to`False`

and a copy of the original circuit will be returned from the method.A new method

`num_nonlocal_gates()`

has been added to the`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit`

class. This method will return the number of gates in a circuit that involve 2 or or more qubits. These gates are more costly in terms of time and error to implement.The

`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit`

method`iso()`

for adding an`Isometry`

gate to the circuit has a new alias. You can now call`qiskit.circuit.QuantumCircuit.isometry()`

in addition to calling`iso`

.A

`description`

attribute has been added to the`CouplingMap`

class for storing a short description for different coupling maps (e.g. full, grid, line, etc.).A new method

`compose()`

has been added to the`DAGCircuit`

class for composing two circuits via their DAGs.dag_left.compose(dag_right, edge_map={right_qubit0: self.left_qubit1, right_qubit1: self.left_qubit4, right_clbit0: self.left_clbit1, right_clbit1: self.left_clbit0})

┌───┐ ┌─────┐┌─┐ lqr_1_0: ───┤ H ├─── rqr_0: ──■──┤ Tdg ├┤M├ ├───┤ ┌─┴─┐└─┬─┬─┘└╥┘ lqr_1_1: ───┤ X ├─── rqr_1: ┤ X ├──┤M├───╫─ ┌──┴───┴──┐ └───┘ └╥┘ ║ lqr_1_2: ┤ U1(0.1) ├ + rcr_0: ════════╬════╩═ = └─────────┘ ║ lqr_2_0: ─────■───── rcr_1: ════════╩══════ ┌─┴─┐ lqr_2_1: ───┤ X ├─── └───┘ lcr_0: ═══════════ lcr_1: ═══════════ ┌───┐ lqr_1_0: ───┤ H ├────────────────── ├───┤ ┌─────┐┌─┐ lqr_1_1: ───┤ X ├─────■──┤ Tdg ├┤M├ ┌──┴───┴──┐ │ └─────┘└╥┘ lqr_1_2: ┤ U1(0.1) ├──┼──────────╫─ └─────────┘ │ ║ lqr_2_0: ─────■───────┼──────────╫─ ┌─┴─┐ ┌─┴─┐ ┌─┐ ║ lqr_2_1: ───┤ X ├───┤ X ├──┤M├───╫─ └───┘ └───┘ └╥┘ ║ lcr_0: ═══════════════════╩════╬═ ║ lcr_1: ════════════════════════╩═

The mock backends in

`qiskit.test.mock`

now have a functional`run()`

method that will return results similar to the real devices. If`qiskit-aer`

is installed a simulation will be run with a noise model built from the device snapshot in the fake backend. Otherwise,`qiskit.providers.basicaer.QasmSimulatorPy`

will be used to run an ideal simulation. Additionally, if a pulse experiment is passed to`run`

and qiskit-aer is installed the`PulseSimulator`

will be used to simulate the pulse schedules.The

`qiskit.result.Result()`

method`get_counts()`

will now return a list of all the counts available when there are multiple circuits in a job. This works when`get_counts()`

is called with no arguments.The main consideration for this feature was for drawing all the results from multiple circuits in the same histogram. For example it is now possible to do something like:

from qiskit import execute from qiskit import QuantumCircuit from qiskit.providers.basicaer import BasicAer from qiskit.visualization import plot_histogram sim = BasicAer.get_backend('qasm_simulator') qc = QuantumCircuit(2) qc.h(0) qc.cx(0, 1) qc.measure_all() result = execute([qc, qc, qc], sim).result() plot_histogram(result.get_counts())

A new kwarg,

`initial_state`

has been added to the`qiskit.visualization.circuit_drawer()`

function and the`QuantumCircuit`

method`draw()`

. When set to`True`

the initial state will be included in circuit visualizations for all backends. For example:from qiskit import QuantumCircuit circuit = QuantumCircuit(2) circuit.measure_all() circuit.draw(output='mpl', initial_state=True)

It is now possible to insert a callable into a

`qiskit.pulse.InstructionScheduleMap`

which returns a new`qiskit.pulse.Schedule`

when it is called with parameters. For example:def test_func(x): sched = Schedule() sched += pulse_lib.constant(int(x), amp_test)(DriveChannel(0)) return sched inst_map = InstructionScheduleMap() inst_map.add('f', (0,), test_func) output_sched = inst_map.get('f', (0,), 10) assert output_sched.duration == 10

Two new gate classes,

`qiskit.extensions.iSwapGate`

and`qiskit.extensions.DCXGate`

, along with their`QuantumCircuit`

methods`iswap()`

and`dcx()`

have been added to the standard extensions. These gates, which are locally equivalent to each other, can be used to enact particular XY interactions. A brief motivation for these gates can be found in: arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0209035The

`qiskit.providers.BaseJob`

class now has a new method`wait_for_final_state()`

that polls for the job status until the job reaches a final state (such as`DONE`

or`ERROR`

). This method also takes an optional`callback`

kwarg which takes a Python callable that will be called during each iteration of the poll loop.The

`search_width`

and`search_depth`

attributes of the`qiskit.transpiler.passes.LookaheadSwap`

pass are now settable when initializing the pass. A larger search space can often lead to more optimized circuits, at the cost of longer run time.The number of qubits in

`BackendConfiguration`

can now be accessed via the property`num_qubits`

. It was previously only accessible via the`n_qubits`

attribute.Two new methods,

`angles()`

and`angles_and_phase()`

, have been added to the`qiskit.quantum_info.OneQubitEulerDecomposer`

class. These methods will return the relevant parameters without validation, and calling the`OneQubitEulerDecomposer`

object will perform the full synthesis with validation.An

`RR`

decomposition basis has been added to the`qiskit.quantum_info.OneQubitEulerDecomposer`

for decomposing an arbitrary 2x2 unitary into a two`RGate`

circuit.Adds the ability to set

`qargs`

to objects which are subclasses of the abstract`BaseOperator`

class. This is done by calling the object`op(qargs)`

(where`op`

is an operator class) and will return a shallow copy of the original object with a qargs property set. When such an object is used with the`compose()`

or`dot()`

methods the internal value for qargs will be used when the`qargs`

method kwarg is not used. This allows for subsystem composition using binary operators, for example:from qiskit.quantum_info import Operator init = Operator.from_label('III') x = Operator.from_label('X') h = Operator.from_label('H') init @ x([0]) @ h([1])

Adds

`qiskit.quantum_info.Clifford`

operator class to the quantum_info module. This operator is an efficient symplectic representation an N-qubit unitary operator from the Clifford group. This class includes a`to_circuit()`

method for compilation into a`QuantumCircuit`

of Clifford gates with a minimal number of CX gates for up to 3-qubits. It also providers general compilation for N > 3 qubits but this method is not optimal in the number of two-qubit gates.Adds

`qiskit.quantum_info.SparsePauliOp`

operator class. This is an efficient representaiton of an N-qubit matrix that is sparse in the Pauli basis and uses a`qiskit.quantum_info.PauliTable`

and vector of complex coefficients for its data structure.This class supports much of the same functionality of the

`qiskit.quantum_info.Operator`

class so`SparsePauliOp`

objects can be tensored, composed, scalar multiplied, added and subtracted.Numpy arrays or

`Operator`

objects can be converted to a`SparsePauliOp`

using the :class:`~qiskit.quantum_info.SparsePauliOp.from_operator method.`SparsePauliOp`

can be convered to a sparse csr_matrix or dense Numpy array using the`to_matrix`

method, or to an`Operator`

object using the`to_operator`

method.A

`SparsePauliOp`

can be iterated over in terms of its`PauliTable`

components and coefficients, its coefficients and Pauli string labels using the`label_iter()`

method, and the (dense or sparse) matrix components using the`matrix_iter()`

method.Add

`qiskit.quantum_info.diamond_norm()`

function for computing the diamond norm (completely-bounded trace-norm) of a quantum channel. This can be used to compute the distance between two quantum channels using`diamond_norm(chan1 - chan2)`

.A new class

`qiskit.quantum_info.PauliTable`

has been added. This is an efficient symplectic representation of a list of N-qubit Pauli operators. Some features of this class are:`PauliTable`

objects may be composed, and tensored which will return a`PauliTable`

object with the combination of the operation (`compose()`

,`dot()`

,`expand()`

,`tensor()`

) between each element of the first table, with each element of the second table.Addition of two tables acts as list concatination of the terms in each table (

`+`

).Pauli tables can be sorted by lexicographic (tensor product) order or by Pauli weights (

`sort()`

).Duplicate elements can be counted and deleted (

`unique()`

).The PauliTable may be iterated over in either its native symplectic boolean array representation, as Pauli string labels (

`label_iter()`

), or as dense Numpy array or sparse CSR matrices (`matrix_iter()`

).Checking commutation between elements of the Pauli table and another Pauli (

`commutes()`

) or Pauli table (`commutes_with_all()`

)

See the

`qiskit.quantum_info.PauliTable`

class API documentation for additional details.Adds

`qiskit.quantum_info.StabilizerTable`

class. This is a subclass of the`qiskit.quantum_info.PauliTable`

class which includes a boolean phase vector along with the Pauli table array. This represents a list of Stabilizer operators which are real-Pauli operators with +1 or -1 coefficient. Because the stabilizer matrices are real the`"Y"`

label matrix is defined as`[[0, 1], [-1, 0]]`

. See the API documentation for additional information.Adds

`qiskit.quantum_info.pauli_basis()`

function which returns an N-qubit Pauli basis as a`qiskit.quantum_info.PauliTable`

object. The ordering of this basis can either be by standard lexicographic (tensor product) order, or by the number of non-identity Pauli terms (weight).Adds

`qiskit.quantum_info.ScalarOp`

operator class that represents a scalar multiple of an identity operator. This can be used to initialize an identity on arbitrary dimension subsystems and it will be implicitly converted to other`BaseOperator`

subclasses (such as an`qiskit.quantum_info.Operator`

or`qiskit.quantum_info.SuperOp`

) when it is composed with, or added to, them.Example: Identity operator

from qiskit.quantum_info import ScalarOp, Operator X = Operator.from_label('X') Z = Operator.from_label('Z') init = ScalarOp(2 ** 3) # 3-qubit identity op = init @ X([0]) @ Z([1]) @ X([2]) # Op XZX

A new method,

`reshape()`

, has been added to the`qiskit.quantum_innfo.Operator`

class that returns a shallow copy of an operator subclass with reshaped subsystem input or output dimensions. The combined dimensions of all subsystems must be the same as the original operator or an exception will be raised.Adds

`qiskit.quantum_info.random_clifford()`

for generating a random`qiskit.quantum_info.Clifford`

operator.Add

`qiskit.quantum_info.random_quantum_channel()`

function for generating a random quantum channel with fixed`Choi`

-rank in the`Stinespring`

representation.Add

`qiskit.quantum_info.random_hermitian()`

for generating a random Hermitian`Operator`

.Add

`qiskit.quantum_info.random_statevector()`

for generating a random`Statevector`

.Adds

`qiskit.quantum_info.random_pauli_table()`

for generating a random`qiskit.quantum_info.PauliTable`

.Adds

`qiskit.quantum_info.random_stabilizer_table()`

for generating a random`qiskit.quantum_info.StabilizerTable`

.Add a

`num_qubits`

attribute to`qiskit.quantum_info.StateVector`

and`qiskit.quantum_info.DensityMatrix`

classes. This returns the number of qubits for N-qubit states and returns`None`

for non-qubit states.Adds

`to_dict()`

and`to_dict()`

methods to convert`qiskit.quantum_info.Statevector`

and`qiskit.quantum_info.DensityMatrix`

objects into Bra-Ket notation dictionary.Example

from qiskit.quantum_info import Statevector state = Statevector.from_label('+0') print(state.to_dict())

{'00': (0.7071067811865475+0j), '10': (0.7071067811865475+0j)}

from qiskit.quantum_info import DensityMatrix state = DensityMatrix.from_label('+0') print(state.to_dict())

{'00|00': (0.4999999999999999+0j), '10|00': (0.4999999999999999+0j), '00|10': (0.4999999999999999+0j), '10|10': (0.4999999999999999+0j)}

Adds

`probabilities()`

and`probabilities()`

to`qiskit.quantum_info.Statevector`

and`qiskit.quantum_info.DensityMatrix`

classes which return an array of measurement outcome probabilities in the computational basis for the specified subsystems.Example

from qiskit.quantum_info import Statevector state = Statevector.from_label('+0') print(state.probabilities())

[0.5 0. 0.5 0. ]

from qiskit.quantum_info import DensityMatrix state = DensityMatrix.from_label('+0') print(state.probabilities())

[0.5 0. 0.5 0. ]

Adds

`probabilities_dict()`

and`probabilities_dict()`

to`qiskit.quantum_info.Statevector`

and`qiskit.quantum_info.DensityMatrix`

classes which return a count-style dictionary array of measurement outcome probabilities in the computational basis for the specified subsystems.from qiskit.quantum_info import Statevector state = Statevector.from_label('+0') print(state.probabilities_dict())

{'00': 0.4999999999999999, '10': 0.4999999999999999}

from qiskit.quantum_info import DensityMatrix state = DensityMatrix.from_label('+0') print(state.probabilities_dict())

{'00': 0.4999999999999999, '10': 0.4999999999999999}

Add

`sample_counts()`

and`sample_memory()`

methods to the`Statevector`

and`DensityMatrix`

classes for sampling measurement outcomes on subsystems.Example:

Generate a counts dictionary by sampling from a statevector

from qiskit.quantum_info import Statevector psi = Statevector.from_label('+0') shots = 1024 # Sample counts dictionary counts = psi.sample_counts(shots) print('Measure both:', counts) # Qubit-0 counts0 = psi.sample_counts(shots, [0]) print('Measure Qubit-0:', counts0) # Qubit-1 counts1 = psi.sample_counts(shots, [1]) print('Measure Qubit-1:', counts1)

Measure both: {'00': 529, '10': 495} Measure Qubit-0: {'0': 1024} Measure Qubit-1: {'0': 508, '1': 516}

Return the array of measurement outcomes for each sample

from qiskit.quantum_info import Statevector psi = Statevector.from_label('-1') shots = 10 # Sample memory mem = psi.sample_memory(shots) print('Measure both:', mem) # Qubit-0 mem0 = psi.sample_memory(shots, [0]) print('Measure Qubit-0:', mem0) # Qubit-1 mem1 = psi.sample_memory(shots, [1]) print('Measure Qubit-1:', mem1)

Measure both: ['01' '11' '11' '01' '01' '01' '11' '01' '01' '01'] Measure Qubit-0: ['1' '1' '1' '1' '1' '1' '1' '1' '1' '1'] Measure Qubit-1: ['0' '1' '0' '0' '1' '1' '0' '0' '1' '1']

Adds a

`measure()`

method to the`qiskit.quantum_info.Statevector`

and`qiskit.quantum_info.DensityMatrix`

quantum state classes. This allows sampling a single measurement outcome from the specified subsystems and collapsing the statevector to the post-measurement computational basis state. For examplefrom qiskit.quantum_info import Statevector psi = Statevector.from_label('+1') # Measure both qubits outcome, psi_meas = psi.measure() print("measure([0, 1]) outcome:", outcome, "Post-measurement state:") print(psi_meas) # Measure qubit-1 only outcome, psi_meas = psi.measure([1]) print("measure([1]) outcome:", outcome, "Post-measurement state:") print(psi_meas)

measure([0, 1]) outcome: 11 Post-measurement state: Statevector([0.+0.j, 0.+0.j, 0.+0.j, 1.+0.j], dims=(2, 2)) measure([1]) outcome: 1 Post-measurement state: Statevector([0.+0.j, 0.+0.j, 0.+0.j, 1.+0.j], dims=(2, 2))

Adds a

`reset()`

method to the`qiskit.quantum_info.Statevector`

and`qiskit.quantum_info.DensityMatrix`

quantum state classes. This allows reseting some or all subsystems to the \(|0\rangle\) state. For examplefrom qiskit.quantum_info import Statevector psi = Statevector.from_label('+1') # Reset both qubits psi_reset = psi.reset() print("Post reset state: ") print(psi_reset) # Reset qubit-1 only psi_reset = psi.reset([1]) print("Post reset([1]) state: ") print(psi_reset)

Post reset state: Statevector([1.+0.j, 0.+0.j, 0.+0.j, 0.+0.j], dims=(2, 2)) Post reset([1]) state: Statevector([0.+0.j, 1.+0.j, 0.+0.j, 0.+0.j], dims=(2, 2))

A new visualization function

`qiskit.visualization.visualize_transition()`

for visualizing single qubit gate transitions has been added. It takes in a single qubit circuit and returns an animation of qubit state transitions on a Bloch sphere. To use this function you must have installed the dependencies for and configured globally a matplotlib animtion writer. You can refer to the matplotlib documentation for more details on this. However, in the default case simply ensuring that FFmpeg is installed is sufficient to use this function.It supports circuits with the following gates:

`HGate`

`XGate`

`YGate`

`ZGate`

`RXGate`

`RYGate`

`RZGate`

`SGate`

`SdgGate`

`TGate`

`TdgGate`

`U1Gate`

For example:

from qiskit.visualization import visualize_transition from qiskit import * qc = QuantumCircuit(1) qc.h(0) qc.ry(70,0) qc.rx(90,0) qc.rz(120,0) visualize_transition(qc, fpg=20, spg=1, trace=True)