French
Languages
English
Bengali
French
German
Japanese
Korean
Portuguese
Spanish
Tamil

Code source de qiskit.opflow.gradients.derivative_base

# This code is part of Qiskit.
#
# (C) Copyright IBM 2020.
#
# This code is licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0. You may
# obtain a copy of this license in the LICENSE.txt file in the root directory
# of this source tree or at http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.
#
# Any modifications or derivative works of this code must retain this
# copyright notice, and modified files need to carry a notice indicating
# that they have been altered from the originals.

""" DerivativeBase Class """

import warnings
from abc import abstractmethod
from typing import Callable, Iterable, List, Optional, Tuple, Union

import numpy as np
from qiskit.utils.quantum_instance import QuantumInstance
from qiskit.circuit import ParameterExpression, ParameterVector
from qiskit.providers import Backend

from ..converters.converter_base import ConverterBase
from ..expectations import ExpectationBase, PauliExpectation
from ..list_ops.composed_op import ComposedOp
from ..list_ops.list_op import ListOp
from ..list_ops.tensored_op import TensoredOp
from ..operator_base import OperatorBase
from ..primitive_ops.primitive_op import PrimitiveOp
from ..state_fns import StateFn, OperatorStateFn

OperatorType = Union[StateFn, PrimitiveOp, ListOp]


[docs]class DerivativeBase(ConverterBase): r"""Base class for differentiating opflow objects. Converter for differentiating opflow objects and handling things like properly differentiating combo_fn's and enforcing product rules when operator coefficients are parameterized. This is distinct from CircuitGradient converters which use quantum techniques such as parameter shifts and linear combination of unitaries to compute derivatives of circuits. CircuitGradient - uses quantum techniques to get derivatives of circuits DerivativeBase - uses classical techniques to differentiate opflow data structures """ # pylint: disable=arguments-differ
[docs] @abstractmethod def convert( self, operator: OperatorBase, params: Optional[ Union[ParameterVector, ParameterExpression, List[ParameterExpression]] ] = None, ) -> OperatorBase: r""" Args: operator: The operator we are taking the gradient, Hessian or QFI of params: The parameters we are taking the gradient, Hessian or QFI with respect to. Returns: An operator whose evaluation yields the gradient, Hessian or QFI. Raises: ValueError: If ``params`` contains a parameter not present in ``operator``. """ raise NotImplementedError
[docs] def gradient_wrapper( self, operator: OperatorBase, bind_params: Union[ParameterExpression, ParameterVector, List[ParameterExpression]], grad_params: Optional[ Union[ ParameterExpression, ParameterVector, List[ParameterExpression], Tuple[ParameterExpression, ParameterExpression], List[Tuple[ParameterExpression, ParameterExpression]], ] ] = None, backend: Optional[Union[Backend, QuantumInstance]] = None, expectation: Optional[ExpectationBase] = None, ) -> Callable[[Iterable], np.ndarray]: """Get a callable function which provides the respective gradient, Hessian or QFI for given parameter values. This callable can be used as gradient function for optimizers. Args: operator: The operator for which we want to get the gradient, Hessian or QFI. bind_params: The operator parameters to which the parameter values are assigned. grad_params: The parameters with respect to which we are taking the gradient, Hessian or QFI. If grad_params = None, then grad_params = bind_params backend: The quantum backend or QuantumInstance to use to evaluate the gradient, Hessian or QFI. expectation: The expectation converter to be used. If none is set then `PauliExpectation()` is used. Returns: Function to compute a gradient, Hessian or QFI. The function takes an iterable as argument which holds the parameter values. """ from ..converters import CircuitSampler if grad_params is None: grad_params = bind_params grad = self.convert(operator, grad_params) if expectation is None: expectation = PauliExpectation() grad = expectation.convert(grad) sampler = CircuitSampler(backend=backend) if backend is not None else None def gradient_fn(p_values): p_values_dict = dict(zip(bind_params, p_values)) if not backend: converter = grad.assign_parameters(p_values_dict) return np.real(converter.eval()) else: p_values_list = {k: [v] for k, v in p_values_dict.items()} sampled = sampler.convert(grad, p_values_list) fully_bound = sampled.bind_parameters(p_values_dict) return np.real(fully_bound.eval()[0]) return gradient_fn
[docs] @staticmethod def parameter_expression_grad( param_expr: ParameterExpression, param: ParameterExpression ) -> Union[ParameterExpression, float]: """Get the derivative of a parameter expression w.r.t. the given parameter. Args: param_expr: The Parameter Expression for which we compute the derivative param: Parameter w.r.t. which we want to take the derivative Returns: ParameterExpression representing the gradient of param_expr w.r.t. param """ warnings.warn( "The DerivativeBase.parameter_expression_grad method is deprecated as of " "Qiskit Terra 0.18.0 and will be removed no earlier than 3 months after " "the release date. Use the ParameterExpression.gradient method instead for " "a direct replacement.", DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=2, ) return _coeff_derivative(param_expr, param)
@classmethod def _erase_operator_coeffs(cls, operator: OperatorBase) -> OperatorBase: """This method traverses an input operator and deletes all of the coefficients Args: operator: An operator type object. Returns: An operator which is equal to the input operator but whose coefficients have all been set to 1.0 Raises: TypeError: If unknown operator type is reached. """ if isinstance(operator, PrimitiveOp): return operator / operator.coeff op_coeff = operator.coeff # type: ignore return (operator / op_coeff).traverse(cls._erase_operator_coeffs) @classmethod def _factor_coeffs_out_of_composed_op(cls, operator: OperatorBase) -> OperatorBase: """Factor all coefficients of ComposedOp out into a single global coefficient. Part of the automatic differentiation logic inside of Gradient and Hessian counts on the fact that no product or chain rules need to be computed between operators or coefficients within a ComposedOp. To ensure this condition is met, this function traverses an operator and replaces each ComposedOp with an equivalent ComposedOp, but where all coefficients have been factored out and placed onto the ComposedOp. Note that this cannot be done properly if an OperatorMeasurement contains a SummedOp as it's primitive. Args: operator: The operator whose coefficients are being re-organized Returns: An operator equivalent to the input operator, but whose coefficients have been reorganized Raises: ValueError: If an element within a ComposedOp has a primitive of type ListOp, then it is not possible to factor all coefficients out of the ComposedOp. """ if isinstance(operator, ListOp) and not isinstance(operator, ComposedOp): return operator.traverse(cls._factor_coeffs_out_of_composed_op) if isinstance(operator, ComposedOp): total_coeff = operator.coeff take_norm_of_coeffs = False for k, op in enumerate(operator.oplist): if take_norm_of_coeffs: total_coeff *= op.coeff * np.conj(op.coeff) # type: ignore else: total_coeff *= op.coeff # type: ignore if hasattr(op, "primitive"): prim = op.primitive # type: ignore if isinstance(op, StateFn) and isinstance(prim, TensoredOp): # Check if any of the coefficients in the TensoredOp is a # ParameterExpression for prim_op in prim.oplist: # If a coefficient is a ParameterExpression make sure that the # coefficients are pulled together correctly if isinstance(prim_op.coeff, ParameterExpression): prim_tensored = StateFn( prim.reduce(), is_measurement=op.is_measurement, coeff=op.coeff ) operator.oplist[k] = prim_tensored return operator.traverse(cls._factor_coeffs_out_of_composed_op) elif isinstance(prim, ListOp): raise ValueError( "This operator was not properly decomposed. " "By this point, all operator measurements should " "contain single operators, otherwise the coefficient " "gradients will not be handled properly." ) if hasattr(prim, "coeff"): if take_norm_of_coeffs: total_coeff *= prim._coeff * np.conj(prim._coeff) else: total_coeff *= prim._coeff if isinstance(op, OperatorStateFn) and op.is_measurement: take_norm_of_coeffs = True return cls._erase_operator_coeffs(operator).mul(total_coeff) else: return operator
def _coeff_derivative(coeff, param): if isinstance(coeff, ParameterExpression) and len(coeff.parameters) > 0: return coeff.gradient(param) return 0