qiskit.aqua.operators.OperatorBase¶

class
OperatorBase
[Quellcode]¶ A base class for all Operators: PrimitiveOps, StateFns, ListOps, etc. Operators are defined as functions which take one complex binary function to another. These complex binary functions are represented by StateFns, which are themselves a special class of Operators taking only the
Zero
StateFn to the complex binary function they represent.Operators can be used to construct complicated functions and computation, and serve as the building blocks for algorithms in Aqua.

abstract
__init__
()[Quellcode]¶ Initialize self. See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.
Methods
__init__
()Initialize self.
add
(other)Return Operator addition of self and other, overloaded by
+
.adjoint
()Return a new Operator equal to the Operator’s adjoint (conjugate transpose), overloaded by
~
.assign_parameters
(param_dict)Binds scalar values to any Terra
Parameters
in the coefficients or primitives of the Operator, or substitutes oneParameter
for another.bind_parameters
(param_dict)Same as assign_parameters, but maintained for consistency with QuantumCircuit in Terra (which has both assign_parameters and bind_parameters).
compose
(other[, permutation, front])Return Operator Composition between self and other (linear algebrastyle: A@B(x) = A(B(x))), overloaded by
@
.equals
(other)Evaluate Equality between Operators, overloaded by
==
.eval
([front])Evaluate the Operator’s underlying function, either on a binary string or another Operator.
mul
(scalar)Returns the scalar multiplication of the Operator, overloaded by
*
, including support for Terra’sParameters
, which can be bound to values later (viabind_parameters
).neg
()Return the Operator’s negation, effectively just multiplying by 1.0, overloaded by

.permute
(permutation)Permutes the qubits of the operator.
power
(exponent)Return Operator composed with self multiple times, overloaded by
**
.Return a set of strings describing the primitives contained in the Operator.
reduce
()Try collapsing the Operator structure, usually after some type of conversion, e.g.
tensor
(other)Return tensor product between self and other, overloaded by
^
.tensorpower
(other)Return tensor product with self multiple times, overloaded by
^
.to_legacy_op
([massive])Attempt to return the Legacy Operator representation of the Operator.
to_matrix
([massive])Return NumPy representation of the Operator.
Attributes
ENABLE_DEPRECATION
INDENTATION
The number of qubits over which the Operator is defined.
Return a set of Parameter objects contained in the Operator.

abstract
add
(other)[Quellcode]¶ Return Operator addition of self and other, overloaded by
+
. Parameter
other (
OperatorBase
) – AnOperatorBase
with the same number of qubits as self, and in the same ‚Operator‘, ‚State function‘, or ‚Measurement‘ category as self (i.e. the same type of underlying function). Rückgabetyp
OperatorBase
 Rückgabe
An
OperatorBase
equivalent to the sum of self and other.

abstract
adjoint
()[Quellcode]¶ Return a new Operator equal to the Operator’s adjoint (conjugate transpose), overloaded by
~
. For StateFns, this also turns the StateFn into a measurement. Rückgabetyp
OperatorBase
 Rückgabe
An
OperatorBase
equivalent to the adjoint of self.

abstract
assign_parameters
(param_dict)[Quellcode]¶ Binds scalar values to any Terra
Parameters
in the coefficients or primitives of the Operator, or substitutes oneParameter
for another. This method differs from Terra’sassign_parameters
in that it also supports lists of values to assign for a giveParameter
, in which case self will be copied for each parameterization in the binding list(s), and all the copies will be returned in anOpList
. If lists of parameterizations are used, everyParameter
in the param_dict must have the same length list of parameterizations. Parameter
param_dict (
Dict
[ParameterExpression
,Union
[Number
,ParameterExpression
,List
[Union
[Number
,ParameterExpression
]]]]) – The dictionary ofParameters
to replace, and values or lists of values by which to replace them. Rückgabetyp
OperatorBase
 Rückgabe
The
OperatorBase
with theParameters
in self replaced by the values orParameters
in param_dict. If param_dict contains parameterization lists, thisOperatorBase
is anOpList
.

bind_parameters
(param_dict)[Quellcode]¶ Same as assign_parameters, but maintained for consistency with QuantumCircuit in Terra (which has both assign_parameters and bind_parameters).
 Rückgabetyp
OperatorBase

abstract
compose
(other, permutation=None, front=False)[Quellcode]¶ Return Operator Composition between self and other (linear algebrastyle: A@B(x) = A(B(x))), overloaded by
@
.Note: You must be conscious of Quantum Circuit vs. Linear Algebra ordering conventions. Meaning, X.compose(Y) produces an X∘Y on qubit 0, but would produce a QuantumCircuit which looks like
[Y][X]
Because Terra prints circuits with the initial state at the left side of the circuit.
 Parameter
other (
OperatorBase
) – TheOperatorBase
with which to compose self.permutation (
Optional
[List
[int
]]) –List[int]
which defines permutation on other operator.front (
bool
) – If front==True, returnother.compose(self)
.
 Rückgabetyp
OperatorBase
 Rückgabe
An
OperatorBase
equivalent to the function composition of self and other.

abstract
equals
(other)[Quellcode]¶ Evaluate Equality between Operators, overloaded by
==
. Only returns True if self and other are of the same representation (e.g. a DictStateFn and CircuitStateFn will never be equal, even if their vector representations are equal), their underlying primitives are equal (this means for ListOps, OperatorStateFns, or EvolvedOps the equality is evaluated recursively downwards), and their coefficients are equal. Parameter
other (
OperatorBase
) – TheOperatorBase
to compare to self. Rückgabetyp
bool
 Rückgabe
A bool equal to the equality of self and other.

abstract
eval
(front=None)[Quellcode]¶ Evaluate the Operator’s underlying function, either on a binary string or another Operator. A square binary Operator can be defined as a function taking a binary function to another binary function. This method returns the value of that function for a given StateFn or binary string. For example,
op.eval('0110').eval('1110')
can be seen as querying the Operator’s matrix representation by row 6 and column 14, and will return the complex value at those „indices.“ Similarly for a StateFn,op.eval('1011')
will return the complex value at row 11 of the vector representation of the StateFn, as all StateFns are defined to be evaluated from Zero implicitly (i.e. it is as if.eval('0000')
is already called implicitly to always „indexing“ from column 0).If
front
is None, the matrixrepresentation of the operator is returned. Parameter
front (
Union
[str
,Dict
[str
,complex
],OperatorBase
,None
]) – The bitstring, dict of bitstrings (with values being coefficients), or StateFn to evaluated by the Operator’s underlying function, or None. Rückgabetyp
Union
[OperatorBase
,float
,complex
,list
] Rückgabe
The output of the Operator’s evaluation function. If self is a
StateFn
, the result is a float or complex. If self is an Operator (PrimitiveOp, ComposedOp, SummedOp, EvolvedOp,
etc.), the result is a StateFn. Iffront
is None, the matrixrepresentation of the operator is returned, which is aMatrixOp
for the operators and aVectorStateFn
for statefunctions. If either self or front contain properListOps
(not ListOp subclasses), the result is an ndimensional list of complex or StateFn results, resulting from the recursive evaluation by each OperatorBase in the ListOps.

abstract
mul
(scalar)[Quellcode]¶ Returns the scalar multiplication of the Operator, overloaded by
*
, including support for Terra’sParameters
, which can be bound to values later (viabind_parameters
). Parameter
scalar (
Union
[Number
,ParameterExpression
]) – The real or complex scalar by which to multiply the Operator, or theParameterExpression
to serve as a placeholder for a scalar factor. Rückgabetyp
OperatorBase
 Rückgabe
An
OperatorBase
equivalent to product of self and scalar.

neg
()[Quellcode]¶ Return the Operator’s negation, effectively just multiplying by 1.0, overloaded by

. Rückgabetyp
OperatorBase
 Rückgabe
An
OperatorBase
equivalent to the negation of self.

abstract property
num_qubits
¶ The number of qubits over which the Operator is defined. If
op.num_qubits == 5
, thenop.eval('1' * 5)
will be valid, butop.eval('11')
will not. Rückgabetyp
int
 Rückgabe
The number of qubits accepted by the Operator’s underlying function.

abstract property
parameters
¶ Return a set of Parameter objects contained in the Operator.

abstract
permute
(permutation)[Quellcode]¶ Permutes the qubits of the operator.
 Parameter
permutation (
List
[int
]) – A list defining where each qubit should be permuted. The qubit at index j should be permuted to position permutation[j]. Rückgabetyp
OperatorBase
 Rückgabe
A new OperatorBase containing the permuted operator.
 Verursacht
AquaError – if indices do not define a new index for each qubit.

abstract
power
(exponent)[Quellcode]¶ Return Operator composed with self multiple times, overloaded by
**
. Parameter
exponent (
int
) – The int number of times to compose self with itself. Rückgabetyp
OperatorBase
 Rückgabe
An
OperatorBase
equivalent to self composed with itself exponent times.

abstract
primitive_strings
()[Quellcode]¶ Return a set of strings describing the primitives contained in the Operator. For example,
{'QuantumCircuit', 'Pauli'}
. For hierarchical Operators, such asListOps
, this can help illuminate the primitives represented in the various recursive levels, and therefore which conversions can be applied. Rückgabetyp
Set
[str
] Rückgabe
A set of strings describing the primitives contained within the Operator.

abstract
reduce
()[Quellcode]¶ Try collapsing the Operator structure, usually after some type of conversion, e.g. trying to add Operators in a SummedOp or delete needless IGates in a CircuitOp. If no reduction is available, just returns self.
 Rückgabe
The reduced
OperatorBase
.

abstract
tensor
(other)[Quellcode]¶ Return tensor product between self and other, overloaded by
^
. Note: You must be conscious of Qiskit’s bigendian bit printing convention. Meaning, X.tensor(Y) produces an X on qubit 0 and an Y on qubit 1, or X⨂Y, but would produce a QuantumCircuit which looks like[Y] [X]
Because Terra prints circuits and results with qubit 0 at the end of the string or circuit.
 Parameter
other (
OperatorBase
) – TheOperatorBase
to tensor product with self. Rückgabetyp
OperatorBase
 Rückgabe
An
OperatorBase
equivalent to the tensor product of self and other.

abstract
tensorpower
(other)[Quellcode]¶ Return tensor product with self multiple times, overloaded by
^
. Parameter
other (
int
) – The int number of times to tensor product self with itself viatensorpower
. Rückgabetyp
Union
[OperatorBase
,int
] Rückgabe
An
OperatorBase
equivalent to the tensorpower of self by other.

abstract
to_legacy_op
(massive=False)[Quellcode]¶ Attempt to return the Legacy Operator representation of the Operator. If self is a
SummedOp
ofPauliOps
, will attempt to convert toWeightedPauliOperator
, and otherwise will simply convert toMatrixOp
and then toMatrixOperator
. The Legacy Operators cannot representStateFns
or properListOps
(meaning not one of theListOp
subclasses), so an error will be thrown if this method is called on such an Operator. Also, Legacy Operators cannot represent unbound Parameter coeffs, so an error will be thrown if any are present in self.Warn if more than 16 qubits to force having to set
massive=True
if such a large vector is desired. Rückgabetyp
LegacyBaseOperator
 Rückgabe
The
LegacyBaseOperator
representing this Operator. Verursacht
TypeError – self is an Operator which cannot be represented by a
LegacyBaseOperator
, such asStateFn
, proper (nonsubclass)ListOp
, or an Operator with an unbound coeff Parameter.

abstract
to_matrix
(massive=False)[Quellcode]¶ Return NumPy representation of the Operator. Represents the evaluation of the Operator’s underlying function on every combination of basis binary strings. Warn if more than 16 qubits to force having to set
massive=True
if such a large vector is desired. Rückgabetyp
ndarray
 Rückgabe
The NumPy
ndarray
equivalent to this Operator.

abstract