Quellcode fΓΌr qiskit.transpiler.passes.scheduling.alignments.align_measures

# This code is part of Qiskit.
# (C) Copyright IBM 2021.
# This code is licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0. You may
# obtain a copy of this license in the LICENSE.txt file in the root directory
# of this source tree or at http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.
# Any modifications or derivative works of this code must retain this
# copyright notice, and modified files need to carry a notice indicating
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"""Align measurement instructions."""
from __future__ import annotations
import itertools
import warnings
from collections import defaultdict
from collections.abc import Iterable
from typing import Type

from qiskit.circuit.quantumcircuit import ClbitSpecifier, QubitSpecifier

from qiskit.circuit.delay import Delay
from qiskit.circuit.measure import Measure
from qiskit.circuit.parameterexpression import ParameterExpression
from qiskit.dagcircuit import DAGCircuit
from qiskit.transpiler.basepasses import TransformationPass
from qiskit.transpiler.exceptions import TranspilerError
from qiskit.utils.deprecation import deprecate_func

[Doku]class AlignMeasures(TransformationPass): """Measurement alignment. This is a control electronics aware optimization pass. In many quantum computing architectures gates (instructions) are implemented with shaped analog stimulus signals. These signals are digitally stored in the waveform memory of the control electronics and converted into analog voltage signals by electronic components called digital to analog converters (DAC). In a typical hardware implementation of superconducting quantum processors, a single qubit instruction is implemented by a microwave signal with the duration of around several tens of ns with a per-sample time resolution of ~0.1-10ns, as reported by ``backend.configuration().dt``. In such systems requiring higher DAC bandwidth, control electronics often defines a `pulse granularity`, in other words a data chunk, to allow the DAC to perform the signal conversion in parallel to gain the bandwidth. Measurement alignment is required if a backend only allows triggering ``measure`` instructions at a certain multiple value of this pulse granularity. This value is usually provided by ``backend.configuration().timing_constraints``. In Qiskit SDK, the duration of delay can take arbitrary value in units of ``dt``, thus circuits involving delays may violate the above alignment constraint (i.e. misalignment). This pass shifts measurement instructions to a new time position to fix the misalignment, by inserting extra delay right before the measure instructions. The input of this pass should be scheduled :class:`~qiskit.dagcircuit.DAGCircuit`, thus one should select one of the scheduling passes (:class:`~qiskit.transpiler.passes.ALAPSchedule` or :class:`~qiskit.trasnpiler.passes.ASAPSchedule`) before calling this. Examples: We assume executing the following circuit on a backend with ``alignment=16``. .. parsed-literal:: β”Œβ”€β”€β”€β”β”Œβ”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”β”Œβ”€β” q_0: ─ X β”œβ”€ Delay(100[dt]) β”œβ”€Mβ”œ β””β”€β”€β”€β”˜β””β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”˜β””β•₯β”˜ c: 1/════════════════════════╩═ 0 Note that delay of 100 dt induces a misalignment of 4 dt at the measurement. This pass appends an extra 12 dt time shift to the input circuit. .. parsed-literal:: β”Œβ”€β”€β”€β”β”Œβ”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”β”Œβ”€β” q_0: ─ X β”œβ”€ Delay(112[dt]) β”œβ”€Mβ”œ β””β”€β”€β”€β”˜β””β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”€β”˜β””β•₯β”˜ c: 1/════════════════════════╩═ 0 This pass always inserts a positive delay before measurements rather than reducing other delays. Notes: The Backend may allow users to execute circuits violating the alignment constraint. However, it may return meaningless measurement data mainly due to the phase error. """ @deprecate_func( additional_msg=( "Instead, use :class:`~.ConstrainedReschedule`, which performs the same function " "but also supports aligning to additional timing constraints." ), since="0.21.0", pending=True, ) def __init__(self, alignment: int = 1): """Create new pass. Args: alignment: Integer number representing the minimum time resolution to trigger measure instruction in units of ``dt``. This value depends on the control electronics of your quantum processor. """ super().__init__() self.alignment = alignment
[Doku] def run(self, dag: DAGCircuit): """Run the measurement alignment pass on `dag`. Args: dag (DAGCircuit): DAG to be checked. Returns: DAGCircuit: DAG with consistent timing and op nodes annotated with duration. Raises: TranspilerError: If circuit is not scheduled. """ time_unit = self.property_set["time_unit"] if not _check_alignment_required(dag, self.alignment, Measure): # return input as-is to avoid unnecessary scheduling. # because following procedure regenerate new DAGCircuit, # we should avoid continuing if not necessary from performance viewpoint. return dag # if circuit is not yet scheduled, schedule with ALAP method if dag.duration is None: raise TranspilerError( f"This circuit {dag.name} may involve a delay instruction violating the " "pulse controller alignment. To adjust instructions to " "right timing, you should call one of scheduling passes first. " "This is usually done by calling transpiler with scheduling_method='alap'." ) # the following lines are basically copied from ASAPSchedule pass # # * some validations for non-scheduled nodes are dropped, since we assume scheduled input # * pad_with_delay is called only with non-delay node to avoid consecutive delay new_dag = dag.copy_empty_like() qubit_time_available: dict[QubitSpecifier, int] = defaultdict(int) # to track op start time qubit_stop_times: dict[QubitSpecifier, int] = defaultdict( int ) # to track delay start time for padding clbit_readable: dict[ClbitSpecifier, int] = defaultdict(int) clbit_writeable: dict[ClbitSpecifier, int] = defaultdict(int) def pad_with_delays(qubits: Iterable[QubitSpecifier], until, unit) -> None: """Pad idle time-slots in ``qubits`` with delays in ``unit`` until ``until``.""" for q in qubits: if qubit_stop_times[q] < until: idle_duration = until - qubit_stop_times[q] new_dag.apply_operation_back(Delay(idle_duration, unit), [q]) for node in dag.topological_op_nodes(): # choose appropriate clbit available time depending on op clbit_time_available = ( clbit_writeable if isinstance(node.op, Measure) else clbit_readable ) # correction to change clbit start time to qubit start time delta = node.op.duration if isinstance(node.op, Measure) else 0 start_time = max( itertools.chain( (qubit_time_available[q] for q in node.qargs), ( clbit_time_available[c] - delta for c in node.cargs + tuple(node.op.condition_bits) ), ) ) if isinstance(node.op, Measure): if start_time % self.alignment != 0: start_time = ((start_time // self.alignment) + 1) * self.alignment if not isinstance(node.op, Delay): # exclude delays for combining consecutive delays pad_with_delays(node.qargs, until=start_time, unit=time_unit) new_dag.apply_operation_back(node.op, node.qargs, node.cargs) stop_time = start_time + node.op.duration # update time table for q in node.qargs: qubit_time_available[q] = stop_time if not isinstance(node.op, Delay): qubit_stop_times[q] = stop_time for c in node.cargs: # measure clbit_writeable[c] = clbit_readable[c] = stop_time for c in node.op.condition_bits: # conditional op clbit_writeable[c] = max(start_time, clbit_writeable[c]) working_qubits = qubit_time_available.keys() circuit_duration = max(qubit_time_available[q] for q in working_qubits) pad_with_delays(new_dag.qubits, until=circuit_duration, unit=time_unit) new_dag.name = dag.name new_dag.metadata = dag.metadata # set circuit duration and unit to indicate it is scheduled new_dag.duration = circuit_duration new_dag.unit = time_unit return new_dag
def _check_alignment_required( dag: DAGCircuit, alignment: int, instructions: Type | list[Type], ) -> bool: """Check DAG nodes and return a boolean representing if instruction scheduling is necessary. Args: dag: DAG circuit to check. alignment: Instruction alignment condition. instructions: Target instructions. Returns: If instruction scheduling is necessary. """ if not isinstance(instructions, list): instructions = [instructions] if alignment == 1: # disable alignment if arbitrary t0 value can be used return False if all(len(dag.op_nodes(inst)) == 0 for inst in instructions): # disable alignment if target instruction is not involved return False # check delay durations for delay_node in dag.op_nodes(Delay): duration = delay_node.op.duration if isinstance(duration, ParameterExpression): # duration is parametrized: # raise user warning if backend alignment is not 1. warnings.warn( f"Parametrized delay with {repr(duration)} is found in circuit {dag.name}. " f"This backend requires alignment={alignment}. " "Please make sure all assigned values are multiple values of the alignment.", UserWarning, ) else: # duration is bound: # check duration and trigger alignment if it violates constraint if duration % alignment != 0: return True # disable alignment if all delays are multiple values of the alignment return False