Quellcode fĂźr qiskit.extensions.quantum_initializer.uc

# This code is part of Qiskit.
# (C) Copyright IBM 2020.
# This code is licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0. You may
# obtain a copy of this license in the LICENSE.txt file in the root directory
# of this source tree or at http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.
# Any modifications or derivative works of this code must retain this
# copyright notice, and modified files need to carry a notice indicating
# that they have been altered from the originals.

# The structure of the code is based on Emanuel Malvetti's semester thesis at
# ETH in 2018, which was supervised by Raban Iten and Prof. Renato Renner.

# pylint: disable=invalid-name
# pylint: disable=missing-param-doc
# pylint: disable=missing-type-doc

Uniformly controlled gates (also called multiplexed gates).

These gates can have several control qubits and a single target qubit.
If the k control qubits are in the state |i> (in the computational basis),
a single-qubit unitary U_i is applied to the target qubit.

This gate is represented by a block-diagonal matrix, where each block is a
2x2 unitary:

    [[U_0, 0,   ....,        0],
     [0,   U_1, ....,        0],
     [0,   0,  ...., U_(2^k-1)]]

import cmath
import math

import numpy as np

from qiskit.circuit.gate import Gate
from qiskit.circuit.library.standard_gates.h import HGate
from qiskit.quantum_info.operators.predicates import is_unitary_matrix
from qiskit.circuit.quantumregister import QuantumRegister
from qiskit.circuit.quantumcircuit import QuantumCircuit
from qiskit.circuit.exceptions import CircuitError
from qiskit.exceptions import QiskitError
from qiskit.quantum_info.synthesis import OneQubitEulerDecomposer

_EPS = 1e-10  # global variable used to chop very small numbers to zero
_DECOMPOSER1Q = OneQubitEulerDecomposer("U3")

class UCGate(Gate):
    """Uniformly controlled gate (also called multiplexed gate).
    The decomposition is based on: https://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0410066.pdf.

    def __init__(self, gate_list, up_to_diagonal=False):
        """UCGate Gate initializer.

            gate_list (list[ndarray]): list of two qubit unitaries [U_0,...,U_{2^k-1}],
                where each single-qubit unitary U_i is given as a 2*2 numpy array.

            up_to_diagonal (bool): determines if the gate is implemented up to a diagonal.
                or if it is decomposed completely (default: False).
                If the UCGate u is decomposed up to a diagonal d, this means that the circuit
                implements a unitary u' such that d.u'=u.

            QiskitError: in case of bad input to the constructor
        # check input format
        if not isinstance(gate_list, list):
            raise QiskitError("The single-qubit unitaries are not provided in a list.")
        for gate in gate_list:
            if not gate.shape == (2, 2):
                raise QiskitError("The dimension of a controlled gate is not equal to (2,2).")
        if not gate_list:
            raise QiskitError("The gate list cannot be empty.")

        # Check if number of gates in gate_list is a positive power of two
        num_contr = math.log2(len(gate_list))
        if num_contr < 0 or not num_contr.is_integer():
            raise QiskitError(
                "The number of controlled single-qubit gates is not a non-negative power of 2."

        # Check if the single-qubit gates are unitaries
        for gate in gate_list:
            if not is_unitary_matrix(gate, _EPS):
                raise QiskitError("A controlled gate is not unitary.")

        # Create new gate.
        super().__init__("multiplexer", int(num_contr) + 1, gate_list)
        self.up_to_diagonal = up_to_diagonal

    def inverse(self):
        """Return the inverse.

        This does not re-compute the decomposition for the multiplexer with the inverse of the
        gates but simply inverts the existing decomposition.
        inverse_gate = Gate(
            name=self.name + "_dg", num_qubits=self.num_qubits, params=[]
        )  # removing the params because arrays are deprecated

        definition = QuantumCircuit(*self.definition.qregs)
        for inst in reversed(self._definition):

        definition.global_phase = -self.definition.global_phase

        inverse_gate.definition = definition
        return inverse_gate

    def _get_diagonal(self):
        # Important: for a control list q_controls = [q[0],...,q_[k-1]] the
        # diagonal gate is provided in the computational basis of the qubits
        # q[k-1],...,q[0],q_target, decreasingly ordered with respect to the
        # significance of the qubit in the computational basis
        _, diag = self._dec_ucg()
        return diag

    def _define(self):
        ucg_circuit, _ = self._dec_ucg()
        self.definition = ucg_circuit

    def _dec_ucg(self):
        Call to create a circuit that implements the uniformly controlled gate. If
        up_to_diagonal=True, the circuit implements the gate up to a diagonal gate and
        the diagonal gate is also returned.
        diag = np.ones(2**self.num_qubits).tolist()
        q = QuantumRegister(self.num_qubits)
        q_controls = q[1:]
        q_target = q[0]
        circuit = QuantumCircuit(q)
        # If there is no control, we use the ZYZ decomposition
        if not q_controls:
            circuit.unitary(self.params[0], [q])
            return circuit, diag
        # If there is at least one control, first,
        # we find the single qubit gates of the decomposition.
        (single_qubit_gates, diag) = self._dec_ucg_help()
        # Now, it is easy to place the C-NOT gates and some Hadamards and Rz(pi/2) gates
        # (which are absorbed into the single-qubit unitaries) to get back the full decomposition.
        for i, gate in enumerate(single_qubit_gates):
            # Absorb Hadamards and Rz(pi/2) gates
            if i == 0:
                squ = HGate().to_matrix().dot(gate)
            elif i == len(single_qubit_gates) - 1:
                squ = gate.dot(UCGate._rz(np.pi / 2)).dot(HGate().to_matrix())
                squ = (
                    .dot(gate.dot(UCGate._rz(np.pi / 2)))
            # Add single-qubit gate
            circuit.unitary(squ, [q_target])
            # The number of the control qubit is given by the number of zeros at the end
            # of the binary representation of (i+1)
            binary_rep = np.binary_repr(i + 1)
            num_trailing_zeros = len(binary_rep) - len(binary_rep.rstrip("0"))
            q_contr_index = num_trailing_zeros
            # Add C-NOT gate
            if not i == len(single_qubit_gates) - 1:
                circuit.cx(q_controls[q_contr_index], q_target)
                circuit.global_phase -= 0.25 * np.pi
        if not self.up_to_diagonal:
            # Important: the diagonal gate is given in the computational basis of the qubits
            # q[k-1],...,q[0],q_target (ordered with decreasing significance),
            # where q[i] are the control qubits and t denotes the target qubit.
            circuit.diagonal(diag.tolist(), q)
        return circuit, diag

    def _dec_ucg_help(self):
        This method finds the single qubit gate arising in the decomposition of UCGates given in
        single_qubit_gates = [gate.astype(complex) for gate in self.params]
        diag = np.ones(2**self.num_qubits, dtype=complex)
        num_contr = self.num_qubits - 1
        for dec_step in range(num_contr):
            num_ucgs = 2**dec_step
            # The decomposition works recursively and the following loop goes over the different
            # UCGates that arise in the decomposition
            for ucg_index in range(num_ucgs):
                len_ucg = 2 ** (num_contr - dec_step)
                for i in range(int(len_ucg / 2)):
                    shift = ucg_index * len_ucg
                    a = single_qubit_gates[shift + i]
                    b = single_qubit_gates[shift + len_ucg // 2 + i]
                    # Apply the decomposition for UCGates given in equation (3) in
                    # https://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0410066.pdf
                    # to demultiplex one control of all the num_ucgs uniformly-controlled gates
                    #  with log2(len_ucg) uniform controls
                    v, u, r = self._demultiplex_single_uc(a, b)
                    #  replace the single-qubit gates with v,u (the already existing ones
                    #  are not needed any more)
                    single_qubit_gates[shift + i] = v
                    single_qubit_gates[shift + len_ucg // 2 + i] = u
                    # Now we decompose the gates D as described in Figure 4  in
                    # https://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0410066.pdf and merge some of the gates
                    # into the UCGates and the diagonal at the end of the circuit

                    # Remark: The Rz(pi/2) rotation acting on the target qubit and the Hadamard
                    # gates arising in the decomposition of D are ignored for the moment (they will
                    # be added together with the C-NOT gates at the end of the decomposition
                    # (in the method dec_ucg()))
                    if ucg_index < num_ucgs - 1:
                        # Absorb the Rz(pi/2) rotation on the control into the UC-Rz gate and
                        # merge the UC-Rz rotation with the following UCGate,
                        # which hasn't been decomposed yet.
                        k = shift + len_ucg + i
                        single_qubit_gates[k] = single_qubit_gates[k].dot(
                        ) * UCGate._rz(np.pi / 2).item((0, 0))
                        k = k + len_ucg // 2
                        single_qubit_gates[k] = single_qubit_gates[k].dot(r) * UCGate._rz(
                            np.pi / 2
                        ).item((1, 1))
                        # Absorb the Rz(pi/2) rotation on the control into the UC-Rz gate and merge
                        # the trailing UC-Rz rotation into a diagonal gate at the end of the circuit
                        for ucg_index_2 in range(num_ucgs):
                            shift_2 = ucg_index_2 * len_ucg
                            k = 2 * (i + shift_2)
                            diag[k] = (
                                * UCGate._ct(r).item((0, 0))
                                * UCGate._rz(np.pi / 2).item((0, 0))
                            diag[k + 1] = (
                                diag[k + 1]
                                * UCGate._ct(r).item((1, 1))
                                * UCGate._rz(np.pi / 2).item((0, 0))
                            k = len_ucg + k
                            diag[k] *= r.item((0, 0)) * UCGate._rz(np.pi / 2).item((1, 1))
                            diag[k + 1] *= r.item((1, 1)) * UCGate._rz(np.pi / 2).item((1, 1))
        return single_qubit_gates, diag

    def _demultiplex_single_uc(self, a, b):
        This method implements the decomposition given in equation (3) in
        The decomposition is used recursively to decompose uniformly controlled gates.
        a,b = single qubit unitaries
        v,u,r = outcome of the decomposition given in the reference mentioned above
        (see there for the details).
        # The notation is chosen as in https://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0410066.pdf.
        x = a.dot(UCGate._ct(b))
        det_x = np.linalg.det(x)
        x11 = x.item((0, 0)) / cmath.sqrt(det_x)
        phi = cmath.phase(det_x)
        r1 = cmath.exp(1j / 2 * (np.pi / 2 - phi / 2 - cmath.phase(x11)))
        r2 = cmath.exp(1j / 2 * (np.pi / 2 - phi / 2 + cmath.phase(x11) + np.pi))
        r = np.array([[r1, 0], [0, r2]], dtype=complex)
        d, u = np.linalg.eig(r.dot(x).dot(r))
        # If d is not equal to diag(i,-i), then we put it into this "standard" form
        # (see eq. (13) in https://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0410066.pdf) by interchanging
        # the eigenvalues and eigenvectors.
        if abs(d[0] + 1j) < _EPS:
            d = np.flip(d, 0)
            u = np.flip(u, 1)
        d = np.diag(np.sqrt(d))
        v = d.dot(UCGate._ct(u)).dot(UCGate._ct(r)).dot(b)
        return v, u, r

    def _ct(m):
        return np.transpose(np.conjugate(m))

    def _rz(alpha):
        return np.array([[np.exp(1j * alpha / 2), 0], [0, np.exp(-1j * alpha / 2)]])

    def validate_parameter(self, parameter):
        """Uniformly controlled gate parameter has to be an ndarray."""
        if isinstance(parameter, np.ndarray):
            return parameter
            raise CircuitError(f"invalid param type {type(parameter)} in gate {self.name}")

def uc(self, gate_list, q_controls, q_target, up_to_diagonal=False):
    """Attach a uniformly controlled gates (also called multiplexed gates) to a circuit.

    The decomposition was introduced by Bergholm et al. in

        gate_list (list[ndarray]): list of two qubit unitaries [U_0,...,U_{2^k-1}],
            where each single-qubit unitary U_i is a given as a 2*2 array
        q_controls (QuantumRegister|list[(QuantumRegister,int)]): list of k control qubits.
            The qubits are ordered according to their significance in the computational basis.
            For example if q_controls=[q[1],q[2]] (with q = QuantumRegister(2)),
            the unitary U_0 is performed if q[1] and q[2] are in the state zero, U_1 is
            performed if q[2] is in the state zero and q[1] is in the state one, and so on
        q_target (QuantumRegister|(QuantumRegister,int)):  target qubit, where we act on with
            the single-qubit gates.
        up_to_diagonal (bool): If set to True, the uniformly controlled gate is decomposed up
            to a diagonal gate, i.e. a unitary u' is implemented such that there exists a
            diagonal gate d with u = d.dot(u'), where the unitary u describes the uniformly
            controlled gate

        QuantumCircuit: the uniformly controlled gate is attached to the circuit.

        QiskitError: if the list number of control qubits does not correspond to the provided
            number of single-qubit unitaries; if an input is of the wrong type

    if isinstance(q_controls, QuantumRegister):
        q_controls = q_controls[:]
    if isinstance(q_target, QuantumRegister):
        q_target = q_target[:]
        if len(q_target) == 1:
            q_target = q_target[0]
            raise QiskitError(
                "The target qubit is a QuantumRegister containing more than one qubit."
    # Check if q_controls has type "list"
    if not isinstance(q_controls, list):
        raise QiskitError(
            "The control qubits must be provided as a list"
            " (also if there is only one control qubit)."
    # Check if gate_list has type "list"
    if not isinstance(gate_list, list):
        raise QiskitError("The single-qubit unitaries are not provided in a list.")
        # Check if number of gates in gate_list is a positive power of two
    num_contr = math.log2(len(gate_list))
    if num_contr < 0 or not num_contr.is_integer():
        raise QiskitError(
            "The number of controlled single-qubit gates is not a non negative power of 2."
    # Check if number of control qubits does correspond to the number of single-qubit rotations
    if num_contr != len(q_controls):
        raise QiskitError(
            "Number of controlled gates does not correspond to the number of control qubits."
    return self.append(UCGate(gate_list, up_to_diagonal), [q_target] + q_controls)

QuantumCircuit.uc = uc