Source code for qiskit.transpiler.preset_passmanagers.plugin

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# (C) Copyright IBM 2022.
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Transpiler Stage Plugin Interface (:mod:`qiskit.transpiler.preset_passmanagers.plugin`)

.. currentmodule:: qiskit.transpiler.preset_passmanagers.plugin

This module defines the plugin interface for providing custom stage
implementations for the preset pass managers and the :func:`~.transpile`
function. This enables external Python packages to provide
:class:`~.PassManager` objects that can be used for each named stage.

The plugin interfaces are built using setuptools
`entry points <>`__
which enable packages external to Qiskit to advertise they include a transpiler stage(s).

For details on how to instead write plugins for transpiler synthesis methods,
see :mod:`qiskit.transpiler.passes.synthesis.plugin`.

.. _stage_table:

Plugin Stages

Currently, there are 6 stages in the preset pass managers, all of which actively
load external plugins via corresponding entry points.

.. list-table:: Stages
   :header-rows: 1

   * - Stage Name
     - Entry Point
     - Reserved Names
     - Description and expectations
   * - ``init``
     - ``qiskit.transpiler.init``
     - No reserved names
     - This stage runs first and is typically used for any initial logical optimization. Because most
       layout and routing algorithms are only designed to work with 1 and 2 qubit gates, this stage
       is also used to translate any gates that operate on more than 2 qubits into gates that only
       operate on 1 or 2 qubits.
   * - ``layout``
     - ``qiskit.transpiler.layout``
     - ``trivial``, ``dense``, ``noise_adaptive``, ``sabre``
     - The output from this stage is expected to have the ``layout`` property
       set field set with a :class:`~.Layout` object. Additionally, the circuit is
       typically expected to be embedded so that it is expanded to include all
       qubits and the :class:`~.ApplyLayout` pass is expected to be run to apply the
       layout. The embedding of the :class:`~.Layout` can be generated with
   * - ``routing``
     - ``qiskit.transpiler.routing``
     - ``basic``, ``stochastic``, ``lookahead``, ``sabre``, ``toqm``
     - The output from this stage is expected to have the circuit match the
       connectivity constraints of the target backend. This does not necessarily
       need to match the directionality of the edges in the target as a later
       stage typically will adjust directional gates to match that constraint
       (but there is no penalty for doing that in the ``routing`` stage).
   * - ``translation``
     - ``qiskit.transpiler.translation``
     - ``translator``, ``synthesis``, ``unroller``
     - The output of this stage is expected to have every operation be a native
        instruction on the target backend.
   * - ``optimization``
     - ``qiskit.transpiler.optimization``
     - There are no reserved plugin names
     - This stage is expected to perform optimization and simplification.
       The constraints from earlier stages still apply to the output of this
       stage. After the ``optimization`` stage is run we expect the circuit
       to still be executable on the target.
   * - ``scheduling``
     - ``qiskit.transpiler.scheduling``
     - ``alap``, ``asap``
     - This is the last stage run and it is expected to output a scheduled
       circuit such that all idle periods in the circuit are marked by explicit
       :class:`~qiskit.circuit.Delay` instructions.

Writing Plugins

To write a pass manager stage plugin there are 2 main steps. The first step is
to create a subclass of the abstract plugin class
:class:`~.PassManagerStagePlugin` which is used to define how the :class:`~.PassManager`
for the stage will be constructed. For example, to create a ``layout`` stage plugin that just
runs :class:`~.VF2Layout` (with increasing amount of trials, depending on the optimization level)
and falls back to using :class:`~.TrivialLayout` if
:class:`~VF2Layout` is unable to find a perfect layout::

    from qiskit.transpiler.preset_passmanagers.plugin import PassManagerStagePlugin
    from qiskit.transpiler.preset_passmanagers import common
    from qiskit.transpiler import PassManager
    from qiskit.transpiler.passes import VF2Layout, TrivialLayout
    from qiskit.transpiler.passes.layout.vf2_layout import VF2LayoutStopReason

    def _vf2_match_not_found(property_set):
        return property_set["layout"] is None or (
            property_set["VF2Layout_stop_reason"] is not None
            and property_set["VF2Layout_stop_reason"] is not VF2LayoutStopReason.SOLUTION_FOUND

    class VF2LayoutPlugin(PassManagerStagePlugin):

        def pass_manager(self, pass_manager_config, optimization_level):
            layout_pm = PassManager(
                        max_trials=optimization_level * 10 + 1
            layout_pm += common.generate_embed_passmanager(pass_manager_config.coupling_map)
            return layout_pm

The second step is to expose the :class:`~.PassManagerStagePlugin`
subclass as a setuptools entry point in the package metadata. This can be done
by simply adding an ``entry_points`` entry to the ``setuptools.setup`` call in
the ```` or the plugin package with the necessary entry points under the
appropriate namespace for the stage your plugin is for. You can see the list
of stages, entry points, and expectations from the stage in :ref:`stage_table`.
For example, continuing from the example plugin above::

    entry_points = {
        'qiskit.transpiler.layout': [
            'vf2 = qiskit_plugin_pkg.module.plugin:VF2LayoutPlugin',

Note that the entry point ``name = path`` is a single string not a Python
expression. There isn't a limit to the number of plugins a single package can
include as long as each plugin has a unique name. So a single package can
expose multiple plugins if necessary. Refer to :ref:`stage_table` for a list
of reserved names for each stage.

Plugin API

.. autosummary::
   :toctree: ../stubs/


.. autofunction:: list_stage_plugins
.. autofunction:: passmanager_stage_plugins

import abc
from typing import List, Optional, Dict

import stevedore

from qiskit.transpiler.passmanager import PassManager
from qiskit.transpiler.exceptions import TranspilerError
from qiskit.transpiler.passmanager_config import PassManagerConfig

[docs]class PassManagerStagePlugin(abc.ABC): """A ``PassManagerStagePlugin`` is a plugin interface object for using custom stages in :func:`~.transpile`. A ``PassManagerStagePlugin`` object can be added to an external package and integrated into the :func:`~.transpile` function with an entry point. This will enable users to use the output of :meth:`.pass_manager` to implement a stage in the compilation process. """
[docs] @abc.abstractmethod def pass_manager( self, pass_manager_config: PassManagerConfig, optimization_level: Optional[int] = None ) -> PassManager: """This method is designed to return a :class:`~.PassManager` for the stage this implements Args: pass_manager_config: A configuration object that defines all the target device specifications and any user specified options to :func:`~.transpile` or :func:`~.generate_preset_pass_manager` optimization_level: The optimization level of the transpilation, if set this should be used to set values for any tunable parameters to trade off runtime for potential optimization. Valid values should be ``0``, ``1``, ``2``, or ``3`` and the higher the number the more optimization is expected. """ pass
[docs]class PassManagerStagePluginManager: """Manager class for preset pass manager stage plugins.""" def __init__(self): super().__init__() self.init_plugins = stevedore.ExtensionManager( "qiskit.transpiler.init", invoke_on_load=True, propagate_map_exceptions=True ) self.layout_plugins = stevedore.ExtensionManager( "qiskit.transpiler.layout", invoke_on_load=True, propagate_map_exceptions=True ) self.routing_plugins = stevedore.ExtensionManager( "qiskit.transpiler.routing", invoke_on_load=True, propagate_map_exceptions=True ) self.translation_plugins = stevedore.ExtensionManager( "qiskit.transpiler.translation", invoke_on_load=True, propagate_map_exceptions=True ) self.optimization_plugins = stevedore.ExtensionManager( "qiskit.transpiler.optimization", invoke_on_load=True, propagate_map_exceptions=True ) self.scheduling_plugins = stevedore.ExtensionManager( "qiskit.transpiler.scheduling", invoke_on_load=True, propagate_map_exceptions=True )
[docs] def get_passmanager_stage( self, stage_name: str, plugin_name: str, pm_config: PassManagerConfig, optimization_level=None, ) -> PassManager: """Get a stage""" if stage_name == "init": return self._build_pm( self.init_plugins, stage_name, plugin_name, pm_config, optimization_level ) elif stage_name == "layout": return self._build_pm( self.layout_plugins, stage_name, plugin_name, pm_config, optimization_level ) elif stage_name == "routing": return self._build_pm( self.routing_plugins, stage_name, plugin_name, pm_config, optimization_level ) elif stage_name == "translation": return self._build_pm( self.translation_plugins, stage_name, plugin_name, pm_config, optimization_level ) elif stage_name == "optimization": return self._build_pm( self.optimization_plugins, stage_name, plugin_name, pm_config, optimization_level ) elif stage_name == "scheduling": return self._build_pm( self.scheduling_plugins, stage_name, plugin_name, pm_config, optimization_level ) else: raise TranspilerError(f"Invalid stage name: {stage_name}")
def _build_pm( self, stage_obj: stevedore.ExtensionManager, stage_name: str, plugin_name: str, pm_config: PassManagerConfig, optimization_level: Optional[int] = None, ): if plugin_name not in stage_obj: raise TranspilerError(f"Invalid plugin name {plugin_name} for stage {stage_name}") plugin_obj = stage_obj[plugin_name] return plugin_obj.obj.pass_manager(pm_config, optimization_level)
[docs]def list_stage_plugins(stage_name: str) -> List[str]: """Get a list of installed plugins for a stage. Args: stage_name: The stage name to get the plugin names for Returns: plugins: The list of installed plugin names for the specified stages Raises: TranspilerError: If an invalid stage name is specified. """ plugin_mgr = PassManagerStagePluginManager() if stage_name == "init": return plugin_mgr.init_plugins.names() elif stage_name == "layout": return plugin_mgr.layout_plugins.names() elif stage_name == "routing": return plugin_mgr.routing_plugins.names() elif stage_name == "translation": return plugin_mgr.translation_plugins.names() elif stage_name == "optimization": return plugin_mgr.optimization_plugins.names() elif stage_name == "scheduling": return plugin_mgr.scheduling_plugins.names() else: raise TranspilerError(f"Invalid stage name: {stage_name}")
[docs]def passmanager_stage_plugins(stage: str) -> Dict[str, PassManagerStagePlugin]: """Return a dict with, for each stage name, the class type of the plugin. This function is useful for getting more information about a plugin: .. code-block:: python from qiskit.transpiler.preset_passmanagers.plugin import passmanager_stage_plugins routing_plugins = passmanager_stage_plugins('routing') basic_plugin = routing_plugins['basic'] help(basic_plugin) .. code-block:: text Help on BasicSwapPassManager in module ...preset_passmanagers.builtin_plugins object: class BasicSwapPassManager(...preset_passmanagers.plugin.PassManagerStagePlugin) | Plugin class for routing stage with :class:`~.BasicSwap` | | Method resolution order: | BasicSwapPassManager | ...preset_passmanagers.plugin.PassManagerStagePlugin | abc.ABC | builtins.object ... Args: stage: The stage name to get Returns: dict: the key is the name of the plugin and the value is the class type for each. Raises: TranspilerError: If an invalid stage name is specified. """ plugin_mgr = PassManagerStagePluginManager() try: manager = getattr(plugin_mgr, f"{stage}_plugins") except AttributeError as exc: raise TranspilerError(f"Passmanager stage {stage} not found") from exc return {name: manager[name].obj for name in manager.names()}