English
Languages
English
Japanese
German
Korean
Shortcuts

Source code for qiskit.visualization.circuit_visualization

# This code is part of Qiskit.
#
# (C) Copyright IBM 2017, 2018.
#
# This code is licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0. You may
# obtain a copy of this license in the LICENSE.txt file in the root directory
# of this source tree or at http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.
#
# Any modifications or derivative works of this code must retain this
# copyright notice, and modified files need to carry a notice indicating
# that they have been altered from the originals.


"""
Module for the primary interface to the circuit drawers.

This module contains the end user facing API for drawing quantum circuits.
There are 3 available drawer backends available:

 0. Ascii art
 1. LaTeX
 2. Matplotlib

This provides a single function entrypoint to drawing a circuit object with
any of the backends.
"""

import errno
import logging
import os
import subprocess
import tempfile
from warnings import warn

try:
    from PIL import Image
    HAS_PIL = True
except ImportError:
    HAS_PIL = False

from qiskit import user_config
from qiskit.visualization import exceptions
from qiskit.visualization import latex as _latex
from qiskit.visualization import text as _text
from qiskit.visualization import utils
from qiskit.visualization import matplotlib as _matplotlib

logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)


[docs]def circuit_drawer(circuit, scale=None, filename=None, style=None, output=None, interactive=False, plot_barriers=True, reverse_bits=False, justify=None, vertical_compression='medium', idle_wires=True, with_layout=True, fold=None, ax=None, initial_state=False, cregbundle=True): """Draw a quantum circuit to different formats (set by output parameter): **text**: ASCII art TextDrawing that can be printed in the console. **latex**: high-quality images compiled via latex. **latex_source**: raw uncompiled latex output. **matplotlib**: images with color rendered purely in Python. Args: circuit (QuantumCircuit): the quantum circuit to draw scale (float): scale of image to draw (shrink if < 1). Only used by the ``mpl``, ``latex``, and ``latex_source`` outputs. filename (str): file path to save image to style (dict or str): dictionary of style or file name of style file. This option is only used by the ``mpl`` output type. If a str is passed in that is the path to a json file which contains that will be open, parsed, and then used just as the input dict. See: :ref:`Style Dict Doc <style-dict-doc>` for more information on the contents. output (str): Select the output method to use for drawing the circuit. Valid choices are ``text``, ``latex``, ``latex_source``, ``mpl``. By default the `'text`' drawer is used unless a user config file has an alternative backend set as the default. If the output kwarg is set, that backend will always be used over the default in a user config file. interactive (bool): when set true show the circuit in a new window (for `mpl` this depends on the matplotlib backend being used supporting this). Note when used with either the `text` or the `latex_source` output type this has no effect and will be silently ignored. reverse_bits (bool): When set to True reverse the bit order inside registers for the output visualization. plot_barriers (bool): Enable/disable drawing barriers in the output circuit. Defaults to True. justify (string): Options are ``left``, ``right`` or ``none``, if anything else is supplied it defaults to left justified. It refers to where gates should be placed in the output circuit if there is an option. ``none`` results in each gate being placed in its own column. vertical_compression (string): ``high``, ``medium`` or ``low``. It merges the lines generated by the ``text`` output so the drawing will take less vertical room. Default is ``medium``. Only used by the ``text`` output, will be silently ignored otherwise. idle_wires (bool): Include idle wires (wires with no circuit elements) in output visualization. Default is True. with_layout (bool): Include layout information, with labels on the physical layout. Default is True. fold (int): Sets pagination. It can be disabled using -1. In `text`, sets the length of the lines. This useful when the drawing does not fit in the console. If None (default), it will try to guess the console width using ``shutil.get_terminal_size()``. However, if running in jupyter, the default line length is set to 80 characters. In ``mpl`` it is the number of (visual) layers before folding. Default is 25. ax (matplotlib.axes.Axes): An optional Axes object to be used for the visualization output. If none is specified a new matplotlib Figure will be created and used. Additionally, if specified there will be no returned Figure since it is redundant. This is only used when the ``output`` kwarg is set to use the ``mpl`` backend. It will be silently ignored with all other outputs. initial_state (bool): Optional. Adds ``|0>`` in the beginning of the wire. Default: ``False``. cregbundle (bool): Optional. If set True bundle classical registers. Default: ``True``. Returns: :class:`PIL.Image` or :class:`matplotlib.figure` or :class:`str` or :class:`TextDrawing`: * `PIL.Image` (output='latex') an in-memory representation of the image of the circuit diagram. * `matplotlib.figure.Figure` (output='mpl') a matplotlib figure object for the circuit diagram. * `str` (output='latex_source') The LaTeX source code for visualizing the circuit diagram. * `TextDrawing` (output='text') A drawing that can be printed as ascii art Raises: VisualizationError: when an invalid output method is selected ImportError: when the output methods requires non-installed libraries. .. _style-dict-doc: **Style Dict Details** The style dict kwarg contains numerous options that define the style of the output circuit visualization. The style dict is only used by the ``mpl`` output. The options available in the style dict are defined below: Args: name (str): The name of the style. The name can be set to 'iqx', 'bw', or 'default'. This overrides the setting in the '~/.qiskit/settings.conf' file. textcolor (str): The color code to use for text. Defaults to `'#000000'` subtextcolor (str): The color code to use for subtext. Defaults to `'#000000'` linecolor (str): The color code to use for lines. Defaults to `'#000000'` creglinecolor (str): The color code to use for classical register lines. Defaults to `'#778899'` gatetextcolor (str): The color code to use for gate text. Defaults to `'#000000'` gatefacecolor (str): The color code to use for gates. Defaults to `'#ffffff'` barrierfacecolor (str): The color code to use for barriers. Defaults to `'#bdbdbd'` backgroundcolor (str): The color code to use for the background. Defaults to `'#ffffff'` fontsize (int): The font size to use for text. Defaults to 13 subfontsize (int): The font size to use for subtext. Defaults to 8 displaytext (dict): A dictionary of the text to use for each element type in the output visualization. The default values are:: { 'id': 'id', 'u0': 'U_0', 'u1': 'U_1', 'u2': 'U_2', 'u3': 'U_3', 'x': 'X', 'y': 'Y', 'z': 'Z', 'h': 'H', 's': 'S', 'sdg': 'S^\\dagger', 't': 'T', 'tdg': 'T^\\dagger', 'rx': 'R_x', 'ry': 'R_y', 'rz': 'R_z', 'reset': '\\left|0\\right\\rangle' } You must specify all the necessary values if using this. There is no provision for passing an incomplete dict in. displaycolor (dict): The color codes to use for each circuit element in the form (gate_color, text_color). The default values are:: { 'u1': ('#FA74A6', '#000000'), 'u2': ('#FA74A6', '#000000'), 'u3': ('#FA74A6', '#000000'), 'id': ('#05BAB6', '#000000'), 'x': ('#05BAB6', '#000000'), 'y': ('#05BAB6', '#000000'), 'z': ('#05BAB6', '#000000'), 'h': ('#6FA4FF', '#000000'), 'cx': ('#6FA4FF', '#000000'), 'cy': ('#6FA4FF', '#000000'), 'cz': ('#6FA4FF', '#000000'), 'swap': ('#6FA4FF', '#000000'), 's': ('#6FA4FF', '#000000'), 'sdg': ('#6FA4FF', '#000000'), 'dcx': ('#6FA4FF', '#000000'), 'iswap': ('#6FA4FF', '#000000'), 't': ('#BB8BFF', '#000000'), 'tdg': ('#BB8BFF', '#000000'), 'r': ('#BB8BFF', '#000000'), 'rx': ('#BB8BFF', '#000000'), 'ry': ('#BB8BFF', '#000000'), 'rz': ('#BB8BFF', '#000000'), 'rxx': ('#BB8BFF', '#000000'), 'ryy': ('#BB8BFF', '#000000'), 'rzx': ('#BB8BFF', '#000000'), 'reset': ('#000000', #FFFFFF'), 'target': ('#FFFFFF, '#FFFFFF'), 'measure': ('#000000', '#FFFFFF'), 'ccx': ('#BB8BFF', '#000000'), 'cdcx': ('#BB8BFF', '#000000'), 'ccdcx': ('#BB8BFF', '#000000'), 'cswap': ('#BB8BFF', '#000000'), 'ccswap': ('#BB8BFF', '#000000'), 'mcx': ('#BB8BFF', '#000000'), 'mcx_gray': ('#BB8BFF', '#000000), 'u': ('#BB8BFF', '#000000'), 'p': ('#BB8BFF', '#000000'), 'sx': ('#BB8BFF', '#000000'), 'sxdg': ('#BB8BFF', '#000000') } Colors can also be entered without the text color, such as 'u1': '#FA74A6', in which case the text color will always be 'gatetextcolor'. The 'displaycolor' dict can contain any number of elements from one to the entire dict above. latexdrawerstyle (bool): When set to True enable latex mode which will draw gates like the `latex` output modes. usepiformat (bool): When set to True use radians for output fold (int): The number of circuit elements to fold the circuit at. Defaults to 20 cregbundle (bool): If set True bundle classical registers showindex (bool): If set True draw an index. compress (bool): If set True draw a compressed circuit figwidth (int): The maximum width (in inches) for the output figure. dpi (int): The DPI to use for the output image. Defaults to 150 margin (list): A list of margin values to adjust spacing around output image. Takes a list of 4 ints: [x left, x right, y bottom, y top]. creglinestyle (str): The style of line to use for classical registers. Choices are `'solid'`, `'doublet'`, or any valid matplotlib `linestyle` kwarg value. Defaults to `doublet` Example: .. jupyter-execute:: from qiskit import QuantumRegister, ClassicalRegister, QuantumCircuit from qiskit.tools.visualization import circuit_drawer q = QuantumRegister(1) c = ClassicalRegister(1) qc = QuantumCircuit(q, c) qc.h(q) qc.measure(q, c) circuit_drawer(qc) """ image = None config = user_config.get_config() # Get default from config file else use text default_output = 'text' if config: default_output = config.get('circuit_drawer', 'text') if default_output == 'auto': if _matplotlib.HAS_MATPLOTLIB: default_output = 'mpl' else: default_output = 'text' if output is None: output = default_output if output == 'text': return _text_circuit_drawer(circuit, filename=filename, reverse_bits=reverse_bits, plot_barriers=plot_barriers, justify=justify, vertical_compression=vertical_compression, idle_wires=idle_wires, with_layout=with_layout, fold=fold, initial_state=initial_state, cregbundle=cregbundle) elif output == 'latex': image = _latex_circuit_drawer(circuit, scale=scale, filename=filename, style=style, plot_barriers=plot_barriers, reverse_bits=reverse_bits, justify=justify, idle_wires=idle_wires, with_layout=with_layout, initial_state=initial_state, cregbundle=cregbundle) elif output == 'latex_source': return _generate_latex_source(circuit, filename=filename, scale=scale, style=style, plot_barriers=plot_barriers, reverse_bits=reverse_bits, justify=justify, idle_wires=idle_wires, with_layout=with_layout, initial_state=initial_state, cregbundle=cregbundle) elif output == 'mpl': image = _matplotlib_circuit_drawer(circuit, scale=scale, filename=filename, style=style, plot_barriers=plot_barriers, reverse_bits=reverse_bits, justify=justify, idle_wires=idle_wires, with_layout=with_layout, fold=fold, ax=ax, initial_state=initial_state, cregbundle=cregbundle) else: raise exceptions.VisualizationError( 'Invalid output type %s selected. The only valid choices ' 'are latex, latex_source, text, and mpl' % output) if image and interactive: image.show() return image
# ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- # Plot style sheet option # ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- def qx_color_scheme(): """Return default style for matplotlib_circuit_drawer (IBM QX style).""" warn('The qx_color_scheme function is deprecated as of 0.11, and ' 'will be removed no earlier than 3 months after that release ' 'date.', DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=2) return { "comment": "Style file for matplotlib_circuit_drawer (IBM QX Composer style)", "textcolor": "#000000", "gatetextcolor": "#000000", "subtextcolor": "#000000", "linecolor": "#000000", "creglinecolor": "#b9b9b9", "gatefacecolor": "#ffffff", "barrierfacecolor": "#bdbdbd", "backgroundcolor": "#ffffff", "fold": 20, "fontsize": 13, "subfontsize": 8, "figwidth": -1, "dpi": 150, "displaytext": { "id": "id", "u0": "U_0", "u1": "U_1", "u2": "U_2", "u3": "U_3", "x": "X", "y": "Y", "z": "Z", "h": "H", "s": "S", "sdg": "S^\\dagger", "t": "T", "tdg": "T^\\dagger", "rx": "R_x", "ry": "R_y", "rz": "R_z", "reset": "\\left|0\\right\\rangle" }, "displaycolor": { "id": "#ffca64", "u0": "#f69458", "u1": "#f69458", "u2": "#f69458", "u3": "#f69458", "x": "#a6ce38", "y": "#a6ce38", "z": "#a6ce38", "h": "#00bff2", "s": "#00bff2", "sdg": "#00bff2", "t": "#ff6666", "tdg": "#ff6666", "rx": "#ffca64", "ry": "#ffca64", "rz": "#ffca64", "reset": "#d7ddda", "target": "#00bff2", "meas": "#f070aa" }, "latexdrawerstyle": True, "usepiformat": False, "cregbundle": False, "showindex": False, "compress": True, "margin": [2.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.3], "creglinestyle": "solid", "reversebits": False } # ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- # _text_circuit_drawer # ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- def _text_circuit_drawer(circuit, filename=None, reverse_bits=False, plot_barriers=True, justify=None, vertical_compression='high', idle_wires=True, with_layout=True, fold=None, initial_state=True, cregbundle=False, encoding=None): """Draws a circuit using ascii art. Args: circuit (QuantumCircuit): Input circuit filename (str): optional filename to write the result reverse_bits (bool): Rearrange the bits in reverse order. plot_barriers (bool): Draws the barriers when they are there. justify (str) : `left`, `right` or `none`. Defaults to `left`. Says how the circuit should be justified. vertical_compression (string): `high`, `medium`, or `low`. It merges the lines so the drawing will take less vertical room. Default is `high`. idle_wires (bool): Include idle wires. Default is True. with_layout (bool): Include layout information, with labels on the physical layout. Default: True fold (int): Optional. Breaks the circuit drawing to this length. This useful when the drawing does not fit in the console. If None (default), it will try to guess the console width using `shutil.get_terminal_size()`. If you don't want pagination at all, set `fold=-1`. initial_state (bool): Optional. Adds |0> in the beginning of the line. Default: `True`. cregbundle (bool): Optional. If set True bundle classical registers. Default: ``False``. encoding (str): Optional. Sets the encoding preference of the output. Default: ``sys.stdout.encoding``. Returns: TextDrawing: An instances that, when printed, draws the circuit in ascii art. """ qregs, cregs, ops = utils._get_layered_instructions(circuit, reverse_bits=reverse_bits, justify=justify, idle_wires=idle_wires) if with_layout: layout = circuit._layout else: layout = None global_phase = circuit.global_phase if hasattr(circuit, 'global_phase') else None text_drawing = _text.TextDrawing(qregs, cregs, ops, layout=layout, initial_state=initial_state, cregbundle=cregbundle, global_phase=global_phase, encoding=encoding) text_drawing.plotbarriers = plot_barriers text_drawing.line_length = fold text_drawing.vertical_compression = vertical_compression if filename: text_drawing.dump(filename, encoding=encoding) return text_drawing # ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- # latex_circuit_drawer # ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- def _latex_circuit_drawer(circuit, scale=0.7, filename=None, style=None, plot_barriers=True, reverse_bits=False, justify=None, idle_wires=True, with_layout=True, initial_state=False, cregbundle=False): """Draw a quantum circuit based on latex (Qcircuit package) Requires version >=2.6.0 of the qcircuit LaTeX package. Args: circuit (QuantumCircuit): a quantum circuit scale (float): scaling factor filename (str): file path to save image to style (dict or str): dictionary of style or file name of style file reverse_bits (bool): When set to True reverse the bit order inside registers for the output visualization. plot_barriers (bool): Enable/disable drawing barriers in the output circuit. Defaults to True. justify (str) : `left`, `right` or `none`. Defaults to `left`. Says how the circuit should be justified. idle_wires (bool): Include idle wires. Default is True. with_layout (bool): Include layout information, with labels on the physical layout. Default: True initial_state (bool): Optional. Adds |0> in the beginning of the line. Default: `False`. cregbundle (bool): Optional. If set True bundle classical registers. Default: ``False``. Returns: PIL.Image: an in-memory representation of the circuit diagram Raises: OSError: usually indicates that ```pdflatex``` or ```pdftocairo``` is missing. CalledProcessError: usually points errors during diagram creation. ImportError: if pillow is not installed """ tmpfilename = 'circuit' with tempfile.TemporaryDirectory() as tmpdirname: tmppath = os.path.join(tmpdirname, tmpfilename + '.tex') _generate_latex_source(circuit, filename=tmppath, scale=scale, style=style, plot_barriers=plot_barriers, reverse_bits=reverse_bits, justify=justify, idle_wires=idle_wires, with_layout=with_layout, initial_state=initial_state, cregbundle=cregbundle) try: subprocess.run(["pdflatex", "-halt-on-error", "-output-directory={}".format(tmpdirname), "{}".format(tmpfilename + '.tex')], stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.DEVNULL, check=True) except OSError as ex: if ex.errno == errno.ENOENT: logger.warning('WARNING: Unable to compile latex. ' 'Is `pdflatex` installed? ' 'Skipping latex circuit drawing...') raise except subprocess.CalledProcessError as ex: with open('latex_error.log', 'wb') as error_file: error_file.write(ex.stdout) logger.warning('WARNING Unable to compile latex. ' 'The output from the pdflatex command can ' 'be found in latex_error.log') raise else: if not HAS_PIL: raise ImportError('The latex drawer needs pillow installed. ' 'Run "pip install pillow" before using the ' 'latex drawer.') try: base = os.path.join(tmpdirname, tmpfilename) subprocess.run(["pdftocairo", "-singlefile", "-png", "-q", base + '.pdf', base], check=True) image = Image.open(base + '.png') image = utils._trim(image) os.remove(base + '.png') if filename: image.save(filename, 'PNG') except (OSError, subprocess.CalledProcessError) as ex: logger.warning('WARNING: Unable to convert pdf to image. ' 'Is `poppler` installed? ' 'Skipping circuit drawing...') raise return image def _generate_latex_source(circuit, filename=None, scale=0.7, style=None, reverse_bits=False, plot_barriers=True, justify=None, idle_wires=True, with_layout=True, initial_state=False, cregbundle=False): """Convert QuantumCircuit to LaTeX string. Args: circuit (QuantumCircuit): input circuit scale (float): image scaling filename (str): optional filename to write latex style (dict or str): dictionary of style or file name of style file reverse_bits (bool): When set to True reverse the bit order inside registers for the output visualization. plot_barriers (bool): Enable/disable drawing barriers in the output circuit. Defaults to True. justify (str) : `left`, `right` or `none`. Defaults to `left`. Says how the circuit should be justified. idle_wires (bool): Include idle wires. Default is True. with_layout (bool): Include layout information, with labels on the physical layout. Default: True initial_state (bool): Optional. Adds |0> in the beginning of the line. Default: `False`. cregbundle (bool): Optional. If set True bundle classical registers. Default: ``False``. Returns: str: Latex string appropriate for writing to file. """ qregs, cregs, ops = utils._get_layered_instructions(circuit, reverse_bits=reverse_bits, justify=justify, idle_wires=idle_wires) if with_layout: layout = circuit._layout else: layout = None global_phase = circuit.global_phase if hasattr(circuit, 'global_phase') else None qcimg = _latex.QCircuitImage(qregs, cregs, ops, scale, style=style, plot_barriers=plot_barriers, reverse_bits=reverse_bits, layout=layout, initial_state=initial_state, cregbundle=cregbundle, global_phase=global_phase) latex = qcimg.latex() if filename: with open(filename, 'w') as latex_file: latex_file.write(latex) return latex # ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- # matplotlib_circuit_drawer # ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- def _matplotlib_circuit_drawer(circuit, scale=None, filename=None, style=None, plot_barriers=True, reverse_bits=False, justify=None, idle_wires=True, with_layout=True, fold=None, ax=None, initial_state=False, cregbundle=True): """Draw a quantum circuit based on matplotlib. If `%matplotlib inline` is invoked in a Jupyter notebook, it visualizes a circuit inline. We recommend `%config InlineBackend.figure_format = 'svg'` for the inline visualization. Args: circuit (QuantumCircuit): a quantum circuit scale (float): scaling factor filename (str): file path to save image to style (dict or str): dictionary of style or file name of style file reverse_bits (bool): When set to True reverse the bit order inside registers for the output visualization. plot_barriers (bool): Enable/disable drawing barriers in the output circuit. Defaults to True. justify (str): `left`, `right` or `none`. Defaults to `left`. Says how the circuit should be justified. idle_wires (bool): Include idle wires. Default is True. with_layout (bool): Include layout information, with labels on the physical layout. Default: True. fold (int): amount ops allowed before folding. Default is 25. ax (matplotlib.axes.Axes): An optional Axes object to be used for the visualization output. If none is specified a new matplotlib Figure will be created and used. Additionally, if specified there will be no returned Figure since it is redundant. initial_state (bool): Optional. Adds |0> in the beginning of the line. Default: `False`. cregbundle (bool): Optional. If set True bundle classical registers. Default: ``True``. Returns: matplotlib.figure: a matplotlib figure object for the circuit diagram if the ``ax`` kwarg is not set. """ qregs, cregs, ops = utils._get_layered_instructions(circuit, reverse_bits=reverse_bits, justify=justify, idle_wires=idle_wires) if with_layout: layout = circuit._layout else: layout = None if fold is None: fold = 25 global_phase = circuit.global_phase if hasattr(circuit, 'global_phase') else None qcd = _matplotlib.MatplotlibDrawer(qregs, cregs, ops, scale=scale, style=style, plot_barriers=plot_barriers, reverse_bits=reverse_bits, layout=layout, fold=fold, ax=ax, initial_state=initial_state, cregbundle=cregbundle, global_phase=global_phase) return qcd.draw(filename)

© Copyright 2020, Qiskit Development Team. Last updated on 2021/02/18.

Built with Sphinx using a theme provided by Read the Docs.