Source code for qiskit.circuit.instruction

# This code is part of Qiskit.
# (C) Copyright IBM 2017.
# This code is licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0. You may
# obtain a copy of this license in the LICENSE.txt file in the root directory
# of this source tree or at
# Any modifications or derivative works of this code must retain this
# copyright notice, and modified files need to carry a notice indicating
# that they have been altered from the originals.

A generic quantum instruction.

Instructions can be implementable on hardware (u, cx, etc.) or in simulation
(snapshot, noise, etc.).

Instructions can be unitary (a.k.a Gate) or non-unitary.

Instructions are identified by the following:

    name: A string to identify the type of instruction.
          Used to request a specific instruction on the backend, or in visualizing circuits.

    num_qubits, num_clbits: dimensions of the instruction.

    params: List of parameters to specialize a specific instruction instance.

Instructions do not have any context about where they are in a circuit (which qubits/clbits).
The circuit itself keeps this context.

from __future__ import annotations

import copy
from itertools import zip_longest
from typing import List, Type

import numpy

from qiskit.circuit.exceptions import CircuitError
from qiskit.circuit.quantumregister import QuantumRegister
from qiskit.circuit.classicalregister import ClassicalRegister, Clbit
from qiskit.qobj.qasm_qobj import QasmQobjInstruction
from qiskit.circuit.parameter import ParameterExpression
from qiskit.circuit.operation import Operation
from qiskit.utils.deprecation import deprecate_func
from .tools import pi_check


[docs]class Instruction(Operation): """Generic quantum instruction.""" # Class attribute to treat like barrier for transpiler, unroller, drawer # NOTE: Using this attribute may change in the future (See issue # 5811) _directive = False def __init__(self, name, num_qubits, num_clbits, params, duration=None, unit="dt", label=None): """Create a new instruction. Args: name (str): instruction name num_qubits (int): instruction's qubit width num_clbits (int): instruction's clbit width params (list[int|float|complex|str|ndarray|list|ParameterExpression]): list of parameters duration (int or float): instruction's duration. it must be integer if ``unit`` is 'dt' unit (str): time unit of duration label (str or None): An optional label for identifying the instruction. Raises: CircuitError: when the register is not in the correct format. TypeError: when the optional label is provided, but it is not a string. """ if not isinstance(num_qubits, int) or not isinstance(num_clbits, int): raise CircuitError("num_qubits and num_clbits must be integer.") if num_qubits < 0 or num_clbits < 0: raise CircuitError( "bad instruction dimensions: %d qubits, %d clbits." % num_qubits, num_clbits ) self._name = name self._num_qubits = num_qubits self._num_clbits = num_clbits self._params = [] # a list of gate params stored # Custom instruction label # NOTE: The conditional statement checking if the `_label` attribute is # already set is a temporary work around that can be removed after # the next stable qiskit-aer release if not hasattr(self, "_label"): if label is not None and not isinstance(label, str): raise TypeError("label expects a string or None") self._label = label # tuple (ClassicalRegister, int), tuple (Clbit, bool) or tuple (Clbit, int) # when the instruction has a conditional ("if") self._condition = None # list of instructions (and their contexts) that this instruction is composed of # empty definition means opaque or fundamental instruction self._definition = None self._duration = duration self._unit = unit self.params = params # must be at last (other properties may be required for validation) @property def base_class(self) -> Type[Instruction]: """Get the base class of this instruction. This is guaranteed to be in the inheritance tree of ``self``. The "base class" of an instruction is the lowest class in its inheritance tree that the object should be considered entirely compatible with for _all_ circuit applications. This typically means that the subclass is defined purely to offer some sort of programmer convenience over the base class, and the base class is the "true" class for a behavioural perspective. In particular, you should *not* override :attr:`base_class` if you are defining a custom version of an instruction that will be implemented differently by hardware, such as an alternative measurement strategy, or a version of a parametrised gate with a particular set of parameters for the purposes of distinguishing it in a :class:`.Target` from the full parametrised gate. This is often exactly equivalent to ``type(obj)``, except in the case of singleton instances of standard-library instructions. These singleton instances are special subclasses of their base class, and this property will return that base. For example:: >>> isinstance(XGate(), XGate) True >>> type(XGate()) is XGate False >>> XGate().base_class is XGate True In general, you should not rely on the precise class of an instruction; within a given circuit, it is expected that :attr:`` should be a more suitable discriminator in most situations. """ return type(self) @property def mutable(self) -> bool: """Is this instance is a mutable unique instance or not. If this attribute is ``False`` the gate instance is a shared singleton and is not mutable. """ return True
[docs] def to_mutable(self): """Return a mutable copy of this gate. This method will return a new mutable copy of this gate instance. If a singleton instance is being used this will be a new unique instance that can be mutated. If the instance is already mutable it will be a deepcopy of that instance. """ return self.copy()
@property def condition(self): """The classical condition on the instruction.""" return self._condition @condition.setter def condition(self, condition): self._condition = condition def __eq__(self, other): """Two instructions are the same if they have the same name, same dimensions, and same params. Args: other (instruction): other instruction Returns: bool: are self and other equal. """ if ( # pylint: disable=too-many-boolean-expressions not isinstance(other, Instruction) or self.base_class is not other.base_class or != or self.num_qubits != other.num_qubits or self.num_clbits != other.num_clbits or self.definition != other.definition ): return False for self_param, other_param in zip_longest(self.params, other.params): try: if self_param == other_param: continue except ValueError: pass try: self_asarray = numpy.asarray(self_param) other_asarray = numpy.asarray(other_param) if numpy.shape(self_asarray) == numpy.shape(other_asarray) and numpy.allclose( self_param, other_param, atol=_CUTOFF_PRECISION, rtol=0 ): continue except (ValueError, TypeError): pass try: if numpy.isclose( float(self_param), float(other_param), atol=_CUTOFF_PRECISION, rtol=0 ): continue except TypeError: pass return False return True def __repr__(self) -> str: """Generates a representation of the Instruction object instance Returns: str: A representation of the Instruction instance with the name, number of qubits, classical bits and params( if any ) """ return "Instruction(name='{}', num_qubits={}, num_clbits={}, params={})".format(, self.num_qubits, self.num_clbits, self.params )
[docs] def soft_compare(self, other: "Instruction") -> bool: """ Soft comparison between gates. Their names, number of qubits, and classical bit numbers must match. The number of parameters must match. Each parameter is compared. If one is a ParameterExpression then it is not taken into account. Args: other (instruction): other instruction. Returns: bool: are self and other equal up to parameter expressions. """ if ( != or other.num_qubits != other.num_qubits or other.num_clbits != other.num_clbits or len(self.params) != len(other.params) ): return False for self_param, other_param in zip_longest(self.params, other.params): if isinstance(self_param, ParameterExpression) or isinstance( other_param, ParameterExpression ): continue if isinstance(self_param, numpy.ndarray) and isinstance(other_param, numpy.ndarray): if numpy.shape(self_param) == numpy.shape(other_param) and numpy.allclose( self_param, other_param, atol=_CUTOFF_PRECISION ): continue else: try: if numpy.isclose(self_param, other_param, atol=_CUTOFF_PRECISION): continue except TypeError: pass return False return True
def _define(self): """Populates self.definition with a decomposition of this gate.""" pass @property def params(self): """return instruction params.""" return self._params @params.setter def params(self, parameters): self._params = [] for single_param in parameters: if isinstance(single_param, ParameterExpression): self._params.append(single_param) else: self._params.append(self.validate_parameter(single_param))
[docs] def validate_parameter(self, parameter): """Instruction parameters has no validation or normalization.""" return parameter
[docs] def is_parameterized(self): """Return True .IFF. instruction is parameterized else False""" return any( isinstance(param, ParameterExpression) and param.parameters for param in self.params )
@property def definition(self): """Return definition in terms of other basic gates.""" if self._definition is None: self._define() return self._definition @definition.setter def definition(self, array): """Set gate representation""" self._definition = array @property def decompositions(self): """Get the decompositions of the instruction from the SessionEquivalenceLibrary.""" # pylint: disable=cyclic-import from qiskit.circuit.equivalence_library import SessionEquivalenceLibrary as sel return sel.get_entry(self) @decompositions.setter def decompositions(self, decompositions): """Set the decompositions of the instruction from the SessionEquivalenceLibrary.""" # pylint: disable=cyclic-import from qiskit.circuit.equivalence_library import SessionEquivalenceLibrary as sel sel.set_entry(self, decompositions)
[docs] def add_decomposition(self, decomposition): """Add a decomposition of the instruction to the SessionEquivalenceLibrary.""" # pylint: disable=cyclic-import from qiskit.circuit.equivalence_library import SessionEquivalenceLibrary as sel sel.add_equivalence(self, decomposition)
@property def duration(self): """Get the duration.""" return self._duration @duration.setter def duration(self, duration): """Set the duration.""" self._duration = duration @property def unit(self): """Get the time unit of duration.""" return self._unit @unit.setter def unit(self, unit): """Set the time unit of duration.""" self._unit = unit
[docs] def assemble(self): """Assemble a QasmQobjInstruction""" instruction = QasmQobjInstruction( # Evaluate parameters if self.params: params = [x.evalf(x) if hasattr(x, "evalf") else x for x in self.params] instruction.params = params # Add placeholder for qarg and carg params if self.num_qubits: instruction.qubits = list(range(self.num_qubits)) if self.num_clbits: instruction.memory = list(range(self.num_clbits)) # Add label if defined if self.label: instruction.label = self.label # Add condition parameters for assembler. This is needed to convert # to a qobj conditional instruction at assemble time and after # conversion will be deleted by the assembler. if self.condition: instruction._condition = self.condition return instruction
@property def label(self) -> str: """Return instruction label""" return self._label @label.setter def label(self, name: str): """Set instruction label to name Args: name (str or None): label to assign instruction Raises: TypeError: name is not string or None. """ if isinstance(name, (str, type(None))): self._label = name else: raise TypeError("label expects a string or None")
[docs] def reverse_ops(self): """For a composite instruction, reverse the order of sub-instructions. This is done by recursively reversing all sub-instructions. It does not invert any gate. Returns: qiskit.circuit.Instruction: a new instruction with sub-instructions reversed. """ # A single `Instruction` cannot really determine whether it is a "composite" instruction or # not; it depends on greater context whether it needs to be decomposed. The `_definition` # not existing is flaky; all that means is that nobody has _yet_ asked for its definition; # for efficiency, most gates define this on-the-fly. The checks here are a very very # approximate check for an "atomic" instruction, that are mostly just this way for # historical consistency. if not self._definition or not self.mutable: return self.copy() reverse_inst = self.copy( + "_reverse") reversed_definition = self._definition.copy_empty_like() for inst in reversed(self._definition): reversed_definition.append(inst.operation.reverse_ops(), inst.qubits, inst.clbits) reverse_inst.definition = reversed_definition return reverse_inst
[docs] def inverse(self): """Invert this instruction. If the instruction is composite (i.e. has a definition), then its definition will be recursively inverted. Special instructions inheriting from Instruction can implement their own inverse (e.g. T and Tdg, Barrier, etc.) Returns: qiskit.circuit.Instruction: a fresh instruction for the inverse Raises: CircuitError: if the instruction is not composite and an inverse has not been implemented for it. """ if self.definition is None: raise CircuitError("inverse() not implemented for %s." % from qiskit.circuit import Gate # pylint: disable=cyclic-import if"_dg"): name =[:-3] else: name = + "_dg" if self.num_clbits: inverse_gate = Instruction( name=name, num_qubits=self.num_qubits, num_clbits=self.num_clbits, params=self.params.copy(), ) else: inverse_gate = Gate(name=name, num_qubits=self.num_qubits, params=self.params.copy()) inverse_definition = self._definition.copy_empty_like() inverse_definition.global_phase = -inverse_definition.global_phase for inst in reversed(self._definition): inverse_definition._append(inst.operation.inverse(), inst.qubits, inst.clbits) inverse_gate.definition = inverse_definition return inverse_gate
[docs] def c_if(self, classical, val): """Set a classical equality condition on this instruction between the register or cbit ``classical`` and value ``val``. .. note:: This is a setter method, not an additive one. Calling this multiple times will silently override any previously set condition; it does not stack. """ if not isinstance(classical, (ClassicalRegister, Clbit)): raise CircuitError("c_if must be used with a classical register or classical bit") if val < 0: raise CircuitError("condition value should be non-negative") if isinstance(classical, Clbit): # Casting the conditional value as Boolean when # the classical condition is on a classical bit. val = bool(val) self._condition = (classical, val) return self
[docs] def copy(self, name=None): """ Copy of the instruction. Args: name (str): name to be given to the copied circuit, if ``None`` then the name stays the same. Returns: qiskit.circuit.Instruction: a copy of the current instruction, with the name updated if it was provided """ cpy = self.__deepcopy__() if name: = name return cpy
def __deepcopy__(self, memo=None): cpy = copy.copy(self) cpy._params = copy.copy(self._params) if self._definition: cpy._definition = copy.deepcopy(self._definition, memo) return cpy def _qasmif(self, string): """Print an if statement if needed.""" from qiskit.qasm2 import QASM2ExportError # pylint: disable=cyclic-import if self.condition is None: return string if not isinstance(self.condition[0], ClassicalRegister): raise QASM2ExportError( "OpenQASM 2 can only condition on registers, but got '{self.condition[0]}'" ) return "if(%s==%d) " % (self.condition[0].name, self.condition[1]) + string
[docs] @deprecate_func( additional_msg=( "Correct exporting to OpenQASM 2 is the responsibility of a larger exporter; it cannot " "safely be done on an object-by-object basis without context. No replacement will be " "provided, because the premise is wrong." ), since="0.25.0", package_name="qiskit-terra", ) def qasm(self): """Return a default OpenQASM string for the instruction. Derived instructions may override this to print in a different format (e.g. ``measure q[0] -> c[0];``). """ name_param = if self.params: name_param = "{}({})".format( name_param, ",".join([pi_check(i, output="qasm", eps=1e-12) for i in self.params]), ) return self._qasmif(name_param)
[docs] def broadcast_arguments(self, qargs, cargs): """ Validation of the arguments. Args: qargs (List): List of quantum bit arguments. cargs (List): List of classical bit arguments. Yields: Tuple(List, List): A tuple with single arguments. Raises: CircuitError: If the input is not valid. For example, the number of arguments does not match the gate expectation. """ if len(qargs) != self.num_qubits: raise CircuitError( f"The amount of qubit arguments {len(qargs)} does not match" f" the instruction expectation ({self.num_qubits})." ) if len(cargs) != self.num_clbits: raise CircuitError( f"The amount of clbit arguments {len(cargs)} does not match" f" the instruction expectation ({self.num_clbits})." ) # [[q[0], q[1]], [c[0], c[1]]] -> [q[0], c[0]], [q[1], c[1]] flat_qargs = [qarg for sublist in qargs for qarg in sublist] flat_cargs = [carg for sublist in cargs for carg in sublist] yield flat_qargs, flat_cargs
def _return_repeat(self, exponent): return Instruction( name=f"{}*{exponent}", num_qubits=self.num_qubits, num_clbits=self.num_clbits, params=self.params, )
[docs] def repeat(self, n): """Creates an instruction with `gate` repeated `n` amount of times. Args: n (int): Number of times to repeat the instruction Returns: qiskit.circuit.Instruction: Containing the definition. Raises: CircuitError: If n < 1. """ if int(n) != n or n < 1: raise CircuitError("Repeat can only be called with strictly positive integer.") n = int(n) instruction = self._return_repeat(n) qargs = [] if self.num_qubits == 0 else QuantumRegister(self.num_qubits, "q") cargs = [] if self.num_clbits == 0 else ClassicalRegister(self.num_clbits, "c") if instruction.definition is None: # pylint: disable=cyclic-import from qiskit.circuit import QuantumCircuit, CircuitInstruction qc = QuantumCircuit() if qargs: qc.add_register(qargs) if cargs: qc.add_register(cargs) circuit_instruction = CircuitInstruction(self, qargs, cargs) for _ in [None] * n: qc._append(circuit_instruction) instruction.definition = qc return instruction
@property def condition_bits(self) -> List[Clbit]: """Get Clbits in condition.""" from qiskit.circuit.controlflow import condition_resources # pylint: disable=cyclic-import if self.condition is None: return [] return list(condition_resources(self.condition).clbits) @property def name(self): """Return the name.""" return self._name @name.setter def name(self, name): """Set the name.""" self._name = name @property def num_qubits(self): """Return the number of qubits.""" return self._num_qubits @num_qubits.setter def num_qubits(self, num_qubits): """Set num_qubits.""" self._num_qubits = num_qubits @property def num_clbits(self): """Return the number of clbits.""" return self._num_clbits @num_clbits.setter def num_clbits(self, num_clbits): """Set num_clbits.""" self._num_clbits = num_clbits