Source code for qiskit.circuit.controlflow.switch_case

# This code is part of Qiskit.
# (C) Copyright IBM 2023.
# This code is licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0. You may
# obtain a copy of this license in the LICENSE.txt file in the root directory
# of this source tree or at
# Any modifications or derivative works of this code must retain this
# copyright notice, and modified files need to carry a notice indicating
# that they have been altered from the originals.

"""Circuit operation representing an ``switch/case`` statement."""

from __future__ import annotations

__all__ = ("SwitchCaseOp", "CASE_DEFAULT")

import contextlib
from typing import Union, Iterable, Any, Tuple, Optional, List, Literal

from qiskit.circuit import ClassicalRegister, Clbit, QuantumCircuit
from qiskit.circuit.classical import expr, types
from qiskit.circuit.exceptions import CircuitError

from .builder import InstructionPlaceholder, InstructionResources, ControlFlowBuilderBlock
from .control_flow import ControlFlowOp
from ._builder_utils import unify_circuit_resources, partition_registers, node_resources

class _DefaultCaseType:
    """The type of the default-case singleton.  This is used instead of just having
    ``CASE_DEFAULT = object()`` so we can set the pretty-printing properties, which are class-level

    def __repr__(self):
        return "<default case>"

CASE_DEFAULT = _DefaultCaseType()
"""A special object that represents the "default" case of a switch statement.  If you use this
as a case target, it must be the last case, and will match anything that wasn't already matched.
When using the builder interface of :meth:`.QuantumCircuit.switch`, this can also be accessed as the
``DEFAULT`` attribute of the bound case-builder object."""

[docs]class SwitchCaseOp(ControlFlowOp): """A circuit operation that executes one particular circuit block based on matching a given ``target`` against an ordered list of ``values``. The special value :data:`.CASE_DEFAULT` can be used to represent a default condition. This is the low-level interface for creating a switch-case statement; in general, the circuit method :meth:`.QuantumCircuit.switch` should be used as a context manager to access the builder interface. At the low level, you must ensure that all the circuit blocks contain equal numbers of qubits and clbits, and that the order the virtual bits of the containing circuit should be bound is the same for all blocks. This will likely mean that each circuit block is wider than its natural width, as each block must span the union of all the spaces covered by *any* of the blocks. Args: target: the runtime value to switch on. cases: an ordered iterable of the corresponding value of the ``target`` and the circuit block that should be executed if this is matched. There is no fall-through between blocks, and the order matters. """ def __init__( self, target: Clbit | ClassicalRegister | expr.Expr, cases: Iterable[Tuple[Any, QuantumCircuit]], *, label: Optional[str] = None, ): if isinstance(target, expr.Expr): if target.type.kind not in (types.Uint, types.Bool): raise CircuitError( "the switch target must be an expression with type 'Uint(n)' or 'Bool()'," f" not '{target.type}'" ) elif not isinstance(target, (Clbit, ClassicalRegister)): raise CircuitError("the switch target must be a classical bit or register") if isinstance(target, expr.Expr): target_bits = 1 if target.type.kind is types.Bool else target.type.width else: target_bits = 1 if isinstance(target, Clbit) else len(target) target_max = (1 << target_bits) - 1 case_ids = set() num_qubits, num_clbits = None, None = target self._case_map = {} """Mapping of individual jump values to block indices. This level of indirection is to let us more easily track the case of multiple labels pointing to the same circuit object, so it's easier for things like `assign_parameters`, which need to touch each circuit object exactly once, to function.""" self._label_spec: List[Tuple[Union[int, Literal[CASE_DEFAULT]], ...]] = [] """List of the normalised jump value specifiers. This is a list of tuples, where each tuple contains the values, and the indexing is the same as the values of `_case_map` and `_params`.""" self._params = [] """List of the circuit bodies used. This form makes it simpler for things like :meth:`.replace_blocks` and :class:`.QuantumCircuit.assign_parameters` to do their jobs without accidentally mutating the same circuit instance more than once.""" for i, (value_spec, case_) in enumerate(cases): values = tuple(value_spec) if isinstance(value_spec, (tuple, list)) else (value_spec,) for value in values: if value in self._case_map: raise CircuitError(f"duplicate case value {value}") if CASE_DEFAULT in self._case_map: raise CircuitError("cases after the default are unreachable") if value is not CASE_DEFAULT: if not isinstance(value, int) or value < 0: raise CircuitError("case values must be Booleans or non-negative integers") if value > target_max: raise CircuitError( f"switch target '{target}' has {target_bits} bit(s) of precision," f" but case {value} is larger than the maximum of {target_max}." ) self._case_map[value] = i self._label_spec.append(values) if not isinstance(case_, QuantumCircuit): raise CircuitError("case blocks must be QuantumCircuit instances") if id(case_) in case_ids: raise CircuitError("ungrouped cases cannot point to the same block") case_ids.add(id(case_)) if num_qubits is None: num_qubits, num_clbits = case_.num_qubits, case_.num_clbits if case_.num_qubits != num_qubits or case_.num_clbits != num_clbits: raise CircuitError("incompatible bits between cases") self._params.append(case_) if not self._params: # This condition also implies that `num_qubits` and `num_clbits` must be non-None. raise CircuitError("must have at least one case to run") super().__init__("switch_case", num_qubits, num_clbits, self._params, label=label) def __eq__(self, other): # The general __eq__ will compare the blocks in the right order, so we just need to ensure # that all the labels point the right way as well. return ( super().__eq__(other) and == and all( set(labels_self) == set(labels_other) for labels_self, labels_other in zip(self._label_spec, other._label_spec) ) )
[docs] def cases_specifier(self) -> Iterable[Tuple[Tuple, QuantumCircuit]]: """Return an iterable where each element is a 2-tuple whose first element is a tuple of jump values, and whose second is the single circuit block that is associated with those values. This is an abstract specification of the jump table suitable for creating new :class:`.SwitchCaseOp` instances. .. seealso:: :meth:`.SwitchCaseOp.cases` Create a lookup table that you can use for your own purposes to jump from values to the circuit that would be executed.""" return zip(self._label_spec, self._params)
[docs] def cases(self): """Return a lookup table from case labels to the circuit that would be executed in that case. This object is not generally suitable for creating a new :class:`.SwitchCaseOp` because any keys that point to the same object will not be grouped. .. seealso:: :meth:`.SwitchCaseOp.cases_specifier` An alternate method that produces its output in a suitable format for creating new :class:`.SwitchCaseOp` instances. """ return {key: self._params[index] for key, index in self._case_map.items()}
@property def blocks(self): return tuple(self._params)
[docs] def replace_blocks(self, blocks: Iterable[QuantumCircuit]) -> "SwitchCaseOp": blocks = tuple(blocks) if len(blocks) != len(self._params): raise CircuitError(f"needed {len(self._case_map)} blocks but received {len(blocks)}") return SwitchCaseOp(, zip(self._label_spec, blocks))
[docs] def c_if(self, classical, val): raise NotImplementedError( "SwitchCaseOp cannot be classically controlled through Instruction.c_if. " "Please nest it in an IfElseOp instead." )
class SwitchCasePlaceholder(InstructionPlaceholder): """A placeholder instruction to use in control-flow context managers, when calculating the number of resources this instruction should block is deferred until the construction of the outer loop. This generally should not be instantiated manually; only :obj:`.SwitchContext` should do it when it needs to defer creation of the concrete instruction. .. warning:: This is an internal interface and no part of it should be relied upon outside of Qiskit Terra. """ def __init__( self, target: Clbit | ClassicalRegister | expr.Expr, cases: List[Tuple[Any, ControlFlowBuilderBlock]], *, label: Optional[str] = None, ): self.__target = target self.__cases = cases self.__resources = self._calculate_placeholder_resources() super().__init__( "switch_case", len(self.__resources.qubits), len(self.__resources.clbits), [], label=label, ) def _calculate_placeholder_resources(self): qubits = set() clbits = set() qregs = set() cregs = set() if isinstance(self.__target, Clbit): clbits.add(self.__target) elif isinstance(self.__target, ClassicalRegister): clbits.update(self.__target) cregs.add(self.__target) else: resources = node_resources(self.__target) clbits.update(resources.clbits) cregs.update(resources.cregs) for _, body in self.__cases: qubits |= body.qubits clbits |= body.clbits body_qregs, body_cregs = partition_registers(body.registers) qregs |= body_qregs cregs |= body_cregs return InstructionResources( qubits=tuple(qubits), clbits=tuple(clbits), qregs=tuple(qregs), cregs=tuple(cregs), ) def placeholder_resources(self): return self.__resources def concrete_instruction(self, qubits, clbits): cases = [ (labels, unified_body) for (labels, _), unified_body in zip( self.__cases, unify_circuit_resources(, clbits) for _, body in self.__cases), ) ] if cases: resources = InstructionResources( qubits=tuple(cases[0][1].qubits), clbits=tuple(cases[0][1].clbits), qregs=tuple(cases[0][1].qregs), cregs=tuple(cases[0][1].cregs), ) else: resources = self.__resources return ( self._copy_mutable_properties(SwitchCaseOp(self.__target, cases, label=self.label)), resources, ) class SwitchContext: """A context manager for building up ``switch`` statements onto circuits in a natural order, without having to construct the case bodies first. The return value of this context manager can be used within the created context to build up the individual ``case`` statements. No other instructions should be appended to the circuit during the `switch` context. This context should almost invariably be created by a :meth:`.QuantumCircuit.switch_case` call, and the resulting instance is a "friend" of the calling circuit. The context will manipulate the circuit's defined scopes when it is entered (by pushing a new scope onto the stack) and exited (by popping its scope, building it, and appending the resulting :obj:`.SwitchCaseOp`). .. warning:: This is an internal interface and no part of it should be relied upon outside of Qiskit Terra. """ def __init__( self, circuit: QuantumCircuit, target: Clbit | ClassicalRegister | expr.Expr, *, in_loop: bool, label: Optional[str] = None, ): self.circuit = circuit self._target = target if isinstance(target, Clbit): self.target_clbits: tuple[Clbit, ...] = (target,) self.target_cregs: tuple[ClassicalRegister, ...] = () elif isinstance(target, ClassicalRegister): self.target_clbits = tuple(target) self.target_cregs = (target,) else: resources = node_resources(target) self.target_clbits = resources.clbits self.target_cregs = resources.cregs self.in_loop = in_loop self.complete = False self._op_label = label self._cases: List[Tuple[Tuple[Any, ...], ControlFlowBuilderBlock]] = [] self._label_set = set() def label_in_use(self, label): """Return whether a case label is already accounted for in the switch statement.""" return label in self._label_set def add_case( self, labels: Tuple[Union[int, Literal[CASE_DEFAULT]], ...], block: ControlFlowBuilderBlock ): """Add a sequence of conditions and the single block that should be run if they are triggered to the context. The labels are assumed to have already been validated using :meth:`label_in_use`.""" # The labels were already validated when the case scope was entered, so we don't need to do # it again. self._label_set.update(labels) self._cases.append((labels, block)) def __enter__(self): self.circuit._push_scope(forbidden_message="Cannot have instructions outside a case") return CaseBuilder(self) def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_val, exc_tb): self.complete = True # The popped scope should be the forbidden scope. self.circuit._pop_scope() if exc_type is not None: return False # If we're in a loop-builder context, we need to emit a placeholder so that any `break` or # `continue`s in any of our cases can be expanded when the loop-builder. If we're not, we # need to emit a concrete instruction immediately. placeholder = SwitchCasePlaceholder(self._target, self._cases, label=self._op_label) initial_resources = placeholder.placeholder_resources() if self.in_loop: self.circuit.append(placeholder, initial_resources.qubits, initial_resources.clbits) else: operation, resources = placeholder.concrete_instruction( set(initial_resources.qubits), set(initial_resources.clbits) ) self.circuit.append(operation, resources.qubits, resources.clbits) return False class CaseBuilder: """A child context manager for building up the ``case`` blocks of ``switch`` statements onto circuits in a natural order, without having to construct the case bodies first. This context should never need to be created manually by a user; it is the return value of the :class:`.SwitchContext` context manager, which in turn should only be created by suitable :meth:`.QuantumCircuit.switch_case` calls. .. warning:: This is an internal interface and no part of it should be relied upon outside of Qiskit Terra. """ DEFAULT = CASE_DEFAULT """Convenient re-exposure of the :data:`.CASE_DEFAULT` constant.""" def __init__(self, parent: SwitchContext): self.switch = parent self.entered = False @contextlib.contextmanager def __call__(self, *values): if self.entered: raise CircuitError( "Cannot enter more than one case at once." " If you want multiple labels to point to the same block," " pass them all to a single case context," " such as `with case(1, 2, 3):`." ) if self.switch.complete: raise CircuitError("Cannot add a new case to a completed switch statement.") if not all(value is CASE_DEFAULT or isinstance(value, int) for value in values): raise CircuitError("Case values must be integers or `CASE_DEFAULT`") seen = set() for value in values: if self.switch.label_in_use(value) or value in seen: raise CircuitError(f"duplicate case label: '{value}'") seen.add(value) self.switch.circuit._push_scope( clbits=self.switch.target_clbits, registers=self.switch.target_cregs, allow_jumps=self.switch.in_loop, ) try: self.entered = True yield finally: self.entered = False block = self.switch.circuit._pop_scope() # This is outside the `finally` because we only want to add the case to the switch if we're # leaving it under normal circumstances. If there was an exception in the case block, we # should discard anything happened during its construction. self.switch.add_case(values, block)